Let's build A "Popper" Noble Gas Engine AKA Ppap Engine.


RE: Let's build A "Popper" Noble Gas Engine AKA Ppap Engine.
« Reply #2050, on November 1st, 2013, 09:00 AM »
In reaction to your paper:

I don’t buy the LeClair theory of how cavatation produces transmutation from zero point energy.

Transmutation occurs because of Higgs field monopole disruption as anopole magnetism is sufficiently strong to cause the Higgs dual superconductivity in the nucleus to be disrupted with the formation of anapole magnetic nuclear filaments are generated where quarks are reordered and reconfigured.

Cavatation fits into the general whispering wave resonator polariton theory in this way.
 All these reactors produce anapole magnetic fields of varying strength that affect the stability of nuclei in their close proximity.

There is much randomness in this transmutation process where anopole fields can vary widely in strength. Because of this range in strength, sometimes fusion occurs and sometimes fission occurs as the quarks are rearranged.

 This process has nothing to do with high pressures or temperatures; it all comes down simply to the production of ring currents and magnetic disruption of Higgs superconductivity in the nucleus that this magnetic field produces.

 In the case of the cavatation bubble, the bubble acts as a micro-resonator where polariton vortex ring currents produce a negatively charged plasmoid whose anapole magnetic beam is pointed at the nearby solid surface.

In sonoluminescence, the dark mode cavity confinement of the polariton plasmoid breaks down and energy from the plasmoid escapes to the far field as ultra- violet and deep blue light as the cavatation bubble collapses.

When the dark mode is maintained in the cavatation bubble, the polariton plasmid vortex stays together long enough to affect the atoms on the surface of the solid material being eroded.
What you said above I find incredibly interesting. Where do I need to look for information on the ring currents as it relates to Higgs. If this can be done there is incredible energy everywhere. Books could be written on what I pulled out as the quote.



RE: Let's build A "Popper" Noble Gas Engine AKA Ppap Engine.
« Reply #2051, on November 2nd, 2013, 10:58 AM »Last edited on November 2nd, 2013, 01:51 PM by Axil
Origins of mass

This reference explains the Higgs field as the origins of mass. Many Physicist see matter as knots of energy localized within the fabric of the vacuum condensed and embodied in something they call a topological defect.

However, you will find nothing that connects LENR to a process outside of the LENR literature.

Many concepts of the duel superconductive Higgs theory and knots of energy localized in the fabric of the vacuum  can be found in this paper, be warned, it is hard to understand.

Glueball mass from quantized knot solitons and gauge-invariant gluon mass

However, this Doc is interesting:

Theoretical Analysis and Reaction Mechanisms for Experimental Results of Hydrogen-Nickel Systems

This system is very close to the Papp system that is discussed here.

The big reveal here is the Bosenova.

And the huge magnetic fields produced by just heating up some dust.

To my way of thinking, Localized magnetic traps (LMT) are EMF solitons that amplify and modify infrared photons into entangled spin dominated quasiparticles.

Through some new physics (maybe String-net liquid), they project anaopole based magnetism amplified to huge levels by dark mode whispering gallery wave resonance.

When these quasiparticles generate a magnetically mediated nuclear reaction, the associated energy is transferred to them and is shared by the other members of the LMT condensate which use this infrared energy to grow the collective power level of the soliton condensate.

This magnetically mediated nuclear reaction can be fusion, fission and/or alpha/beta decay, but always produces positive levels of nuclear binding energy as the nucleus(s) are reorganized.

This infrared energy has been frequency downshifted by the LMT condensate.

But quantum mechanics absolutely requires that the transfer of nuclear energy break the LMT away from the extended soliton entangled ensemble.

This energy transfer causes the LMT to collapse into decoherence causing a Bosenove,

This collapse will transform the light confined in the soliton into many electrons as the Floquet-Bloch state (light electron mixture) is disrupted. This should result in large numbers of excess electrons produced inside the Ni/H reactor as gamma level nuclear binding energy is converted into electrons.

I think that the Papp engine works in basically the same way, but the light produced in the Papp engine is higher in frequency. No heat is produced, just a lots of white light, UV, and x-rays.

In the Papp engine, lots of excess electrons of also produced.

Check out this reference regarding ring currents:

Quantum Vortices

Using Nonlinear Optics to Gain Insight into Superconductors, Liquid Helium, and Bose-Einstein Condensates

Matt Watts

RE: Let's build A "Popper" Noble Gas Engine AKA Ppap Engine.
« Reply #2052, on November 2nd, 2013, 04:02 PM »
Makes pretty good sense except for the "dark mode whispering gallery wave resonance".  That one is really stretching my mental facilities.  :)


RE: Let's build A "Popper" Noble Gas Engine AKA Ppap Engine.
« Reply #2053, on November 2nd, 2013, 06:53 PM »

Examples of a Whispering Gallery. The Dome of  St Paul's Cathedral, London(left) and the Gol Gumbaz in Bijapur (right);

The whispering gallery is located in the dome of St Paul's Cathedral, London, and has the curious property that if two people stand at opposite sides of the gallery, at a distance of 42 meters, and one whispers into the wall of the dome, then the other person can hear what is being said. If the two individuals face one another and continue the conversation across the expanse of the dome they can no longer hear the words and have to resort to shouting. The reason for this strange effect is that the sound bounces along the wall of the gallery with very little loss, and so can be heard at a greater distance than if the curved wall had not been present. It can be viewed that there is a narrow region near the edge of the dome where the waves propagate most efficiently, and this is known as a 'whispering gallery mode' in honor of the gallery where it was discovered.

 In recent times whispering gallery modes have found new fame with the development of nano-optics. In the modern version of this effect light is made to bounce around the edge of a glass sphere. This setup appears to be very similar to that already depicted, although there are some subtle differences. Under normal conditions when light reaches an interface some of it will be reflected and some will be transmitted. However, if the light is in glass and is travelling back into air there is an angle at which the light can no longer be transmitted and it suffers total internal reflection - exactly 100% of the light is reflected, a very useful effect to reduce losses. When light is travelling around the edge of a sphere it will be total reflected at each bounce, and so propagate with little loss (in fact a very small amount of light leaks out with each bounce due to the curved surface, but this get very complicated so it will be ignored for now.

It involves the hydrogen nanoparticle/structure surface interface layer. Since the light will make many millions of circulations of this interface before being absorbed, it will undergo interference with itself. This means that only whole numbers of wavelengths of light can 'fit' around the edge of the sphere. This selectivity causes discrete modes, known as whispering gallery modes, to exist in the cavity, and these modes are of the lowest loss anywhere in existence.

 The problem when engineering whispering gallery modes, it is that the low loss makes it very hard to get light into- or out of- these modes. From the spectra of this light we discover that only certain wavelengths are strongly present, as expected, each corresponding to a different number of bounces around the spheres circumference.

These optical resonators are like tanks being filled with water. Infrared light is packed into these resonators without any light spilling out. That is what is called dark mode resonance because the resonator behaves like a black hole where light goes in but does not come out.

In a Ni/H reactor, infrared light goes into the whispering galleries and goes around and around with little attenuation. In the this process, light is adjusted in frequency and strengthen because of self-interference and resonance. What remains in these carefully engineered nano-resonators (AKA nuclear active environments) is ultra-strong blue light but this light is far more than just light. This hybrid EMF is plasmons. Plasmons are light and electrons whose waveforms have joined together because of heat driven dipole excitations.

The ring of light becomes an intense plasmoid of light and electric charge that emits anaopole magnetic radiation, a very special type of magnetism right on the atoms of the nano-resonators. This magnetism which keeps the nucleus together or can tear it apart is what produces the LENR effects of quark recombination inside the nucleus of the atoms.

RE: Let's build A "Popper" Noble Gas Engine AKA Ppap Engine.
« Reply #2054, on November 5th, 2013, 11:54 PM »

[size=150]Magnetic light[/size]
One of the mysteries of the DGT reactor is how that device can produce such a huge magnetic fields(1.6T) just by heating a pile of dust.
Light (AKA heat) can produce magnetism when the nanoparticles are configure correctly. These nanoparticles can produce a magnetic dipole where the magnetic field is emitted from the center point of a light ring produced by running light around in a circle.
“Seeing is believing” is an idiom supported by people since ancient times. To see a medium response to the magnetic field component of light, “magnetic light”, by naked eyes would be an additional proof of the concept of metamaterials, which people can design to control light at the new level beyond nature.

In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate for the first time that spherical silicon nanoparticles with sizes in the range from 100 nm to 200 nm have strong magnetic dipole response in the visible spectral range. The scattered “magnetic” light by these nanoparticles is so strong that it can be easily seen under a dark-field optical microscope. The wavelength of this magnetic resonance can be tuned throughout the whole visible spectral range from violet to red by just changing the nanoparticle size."
RE: Let's build A "Popper" Noble Gas Engine AKA Ppap Engine.
« Reply #2055, on November 14th, 2013, 12:39 PM »Last edited on November 14th, 2013, 12:44 PM by Axil
Plasma experiment demonstrates admirable self-control

We knew that The Papp two piston engine produced more electrons than was input in a firing cycle.

Now, hot fusion research has found that hydrogen plasma produces large self generated currents.
The second step is to take full advantage of a surprising feature of the tokamak configuration: under certain conditions the electric current in the plasma can be generated by the plasma itself ("bootstrap" current).

the experiment found that it is feasible for a tokamak to operate reliably at high fusion performance with most (more than 85 percent) of its plasma current consisting of bootstrap current. These conditions were maintained for several seconds, beyond the characteristic time scale of the plasma current evolution, and limited only by DIII-D pulse length constraints.
The Papp engine can produce more than 100% of it current usage.


RE: Let's build A "Popper" Noble Gas Engine AKA Ppap Engine.
« Reply #2056, on November 14th, 2013, 02:56 PM »
Incommensurable physical dimensions.
Quote from Axil on November 14th, 2013, 12:39 PM
more electrons
Physical dimension: "charge"
Quote from Axil on November 14th, 2013, 12:39 PM
produces large self generated currents.
Physical dimension:  "current"

k c dias

RE: Let's build A "Popper" Noble Gas Engine AKA Ppap Engine.
« Reply #2057, on January 4th, 2014, 10:47 AM »Last edited on January 5th, 2014, 01:49 PM by k c dias
Quote from Axil on October 27th, 2013, 02:19 PM
The Papp engine must be forming nanoparticles, and exposing those particles to light.
The Papp process is not complicated.  The essence of the process can be described in 20 words or less. Axil just described it in 13 words.  Papp knew this, but took those words to his grave.  He may not have used the term “nanoparticles”, but he knew that he had discovered a way to concentrate the gases, and later release free gas atoms to form a pressure increase at a substantially constant temperature.  Certainly NOT a pressure increase as described by Jacques Charles.

My signature that I use for my posts here may explain it the best:

"One of the chief theories as to why Papp never told anyone of his operations was [because] it was believed that it would be so completely simple that Papp assumed people would take it and laugh off paying for it." Bob Rohner

I would like to expand more on the nanoparticles and light idea.  I believe that the evidence supports this idea and that Papp created large and stable nano-gas-particles (ngp’s).  Further, the ngp’s were formed from one or more of the following four gases, Xe, Kr, Ar, Ne, and ngp’s, once formed, act to adsorb helium on the outside surfaces of the crystalline ngp structure.  It is these fully adsorbed, to saturation, at STP (standard temperature and pressure) ngp's that are injected into the cylinders of the engine and desorbed by the energy of the light.

This adsorption/desorption process may be as simple as the adsorption of CO2 on to activated charcoal or any number of gases on to the various types of Zeolite molecular sieves, in that the ngp’s absorb energy from the light and thus heat up to desorb the helium.  The amount of pressure from the desorption process is a function of the temperature of the heated adsorbent.  In the case of the ngp’s, the pressure is a function of the brightness or energy of the light.

If the light created to heat the ngp’s were constant like the gliding arc in the Roser-Volvo engine, or from multiple capacitive discharge flashes used in the 2-cylinder-built-by-Bob engine, then the pressure pulse would be substantially at constant pressure during the power stroke.  Further, if each ngp desorbs approximately 75 helium atoms, then sufficient pressure (75 atm.) would be produced to create the power demonstrated in the dyno certified engine.

It is now 25 years after Papp’s death.  There have been millions spent by many different entities attempting to duplicate the process to no avail.  It is time to wake up and concede to the fact that the descriptions in Papp’s patents are simply a recipe for failure.  Once this step is taken, we can begin to look at what was deceptively over described, and/or not mentioned at all, for clues to the truth.

First, the gas was NOT processed in the Roser-Volvo engine as described, it was processed externally and added to the engine.

But certainly the ngp + helium can’t apply to the Roser-Volvo, because helium was never mentioned in the patent.  But now that we have profiled Papp’s character and deception, perhaps this conspicuous omission of helium is a clue!  Is it mentioned in the claims?  If it is a necessary ingredient and is excluded in the claims, then (in Papp’s mind) there will be no  patent protection.  The following is the first (independent) claim:

“1. A variable volume gas-tight chamber within a normally stationary hollow cylinder element and a hollow element telescopically related to the first element and movable with relation to the first element, said chamber, when in expanded position, containing an effective charge of 10 to percent of de-oxygenated water, by volume, and the remaining volume being composed of a mixture of three or more gases whose atoms do not have their outer quantum levels completely satisfied with orbital electrons, the contents of said chamber being at a pressure of between about 1.0 and 3.0 atmospheres at normal temperatures.”

If by “gases whose atoms do not have their outer quantum levels completely satisfied with orbital electrons”, Papp means the inert gases, then he just included helium.

Note that any number of dependent claims can be written to add additional data (true or false) to a independent claim, and will not adversely affect the original independent claim if such information is false.  Therefore, Claim #3, if false, does not distract from Claim #1.

I floated the gas cluster idea to this group in this thread over a year ago on December 26th, 2012.  I find it very disheartening that the gas cluster or ngp idea does not catch on for the simple reason that current rare gas cluster research (academia) has not made stable clusters!

Lets have a look at academia’s process.  Connect a chamber to a vacuum pump, turn on the pump, and squirt some expensive rare gas into the chamber.  The gas expands and cools, and the random motion of the bulk gas is now ordered and linear where the collisions can occur in such a fashion as to form and build clusters.  Next, the clusters are sucked into the vacuum pump and blown out the exhaust pipe.  These academic types (bless they lil hearts) would not have a clue if they created a stable cluster or not.

The folks that accept that the Papp engine was a reality, also must accept that there is some sort of extraordinary process working within.  But it is a sad state that these same folks would rather believe that there is a mini Tokamak fusion reaction going on in the cylinder, that somehow converts all of that heat energy into mechanical energy, without heating the engine, than to even begin to consider a process that could produce pressure and useful work at room temperature with little input power.

In one of the discussions on fb, Bob stated that Papp would sometimes show up with his magic gas concoction “stored” in a television CRT.  I believe that this is a HUGE clue.  The CRT flask with the guns, throated filaments, anode connection and deflection coil intact, and a means to evacuate and fill the flask, has ALL of the components in Figure 18 of US4428193.  Of course, the CRT does not have the two coils of tubes (inner and outer) around the thing, but cooling (the real reason for the inner tubing coil – see the LN2 connection (not mentioned) in Figure 19D near the designation ‘B30’) can be accomplished by chilling the CRT flask using some of Don Roser,s refrigeration equipment, or dipping in LN2.  Same goes for the Florence flasks Papp showed up in the desert with.  Yep, all the flasks contained the same preprocessed mix.  Any electrodes needed to ionize, or inject RF readily sharpened and poked through the rubber stopper, and removed when done.  Of course, the deflection coil with 15.734 kHz applied would be slipped over the neck of the flask, and then removed when the process completes.

So what could be the gas process?  Roughly, I believe a stoppered flask is evacuated, then initially filled to one atm (or less) with xenon, for example.  Electrodes, possibly throated, are pushed through the stopper, the deflection coil attached.  The flask is then dipped into LN2, where the Xe condenses into a liquid (boiling point of Xe is –108C).  As the gas condenses, the pressure should be substantially reduced such that the remaining gas would readily ionize.  Apply an ionizing voltage.  Apply the 15.734 kHz magnetic field, possibly in conjunction with the 27 MHz RF, which both may act to remove the random motion of the gas and cause gas clusters to form and grow.  Research suggests that clusters formed from ionized rare gas may be more stable, therefore the ionization step may need particular attention.  Gas evaporated from the liquid can go to grow the clusters, as well as injecting more gas through the stopper.

In Post # 2041 in this thread, FaradayEZ quoted some guy from fb.  The following statement was made:  “Papp could not, and did not, build the engine, Bob and Tom did that for him. There was no place to add any extraneous and unnecessary components to the engine.”

Bob and Tom built the engine – True.  There was no place to add any extraneous and unnecessary components to the engine – False.

Papp wanted to hide the fact that he was using a small capacitive discharge in the engine to create his light flash.  The capacitor he used was in fact one or both of the high voltage capacitors wrapped around the cylinder, that he said was used to “capture energy from the neutrons, fuktons, whatever…”

The HV capacitors were connected across the buckets, I will call electrodes 1 & 2.

The coils, transistors and diodes were used to build a boost converter (look it up) to create the high voltage to charge the capacitors across electrodes 1 & 2.

The 40 kv from the automotive coil was used as the trigger voltage on a third and intermediate electrode – the one with the pointy protrusion and rectangular plate.  Papp wants us to believe that the 40 kv jumps from one pointy protrusion to the other pointy protrusion on the forth electrode. It just won’t make it, too far away.  Plus, when the piston is at TDC, it simply jumps to ground (the piston).

So, erase the 4th electrode.  Erase the pointy protrusion on the third electrode, but leave the sharp corners on that rectangular plate.   What does that leave?  A trigatron (look it up).

The gaps are a bit large for a trigatron – true.  This was a real problem for Papp, that is why he ultimately resorted to using uranium in the buckets to get the thing to fire.

Look at bob’s video #3.  That is NOT and alpha or beta particle emitter making that Geiger counter scream!  

The clock frequency for the switching in the boost converter (Tom’s circuit) was derived from a resolver output on the crankshaft of the engine.  As the speed of the engine changed, so did that switching frequency.  Watch and listen to video #9 and you will hear the coils driven into saturation.

The two cylinder requirement:  Not for the reasons Papp stated.  It was needed to hide the fact that the AC switching frequency was applied to one cylinder during the up stroke (also helps the re-adorption process) thus making the HV needed for the multiple firings during the down stroke of the other piston.

Timing from Bob “We gave Papp 4 pulses one pulse 5 deg before, then three more 35, 75, 115 after TDC”  Why would any reciprocating engine running 500 rpm or less need a 5 degrees before TDC pulse??  Oh yeah, that one just goes to the piston…

Gotta run..



RE: Let's build A "Popper" Noble Gas Engine AKA Ppap Engine.
« Reply #2058, on January 14th, 2014, 01:31 PM »Last edited on January 14th, 2014, 02:05 PM by Axil
It was a long time in coming, but it is now here; the first LENR reactor. But is it really the first one to make it onto the scene.  


Electrochemical hydrogen-catalyst power system

In principle, The SF-CIHT as patented by Mills cell works in the same way as the first PAPP engine patented back in the 1970s. Mills like Papp uses a spark discharge to activate water vapor to produce gainful electric power and a powerful pressure increase in the water plasma.

In the Papp engine duel cylinder design, the excess electrical power produced in the adjacent cylinder was used to power the spark discharge in the next ghosted cylinder cycle.

But the real power gain came from the pressure increase in the water based plasma produced by the spark. This power gain  that is converted to electric power via a generator allowed the Papp engine to achieve an infinite COP of self-sustaining power production.

If past is prolog, there must be a huge pressure increase in the water vapor after spark discharge in the SF-CIHT cell.

The system’s architecture of the Papp engine is ideal for power production because the conversion of pressure expansion to electrical power is almost loss free using a simple generator setup through a drive shaft.

I believe that Papp switched his design to noble gases because the water vapor was hard on his equipment.

Being paranoid, Papp did not include in his patent what Mills uses to catalyze his reaction; that is, any number of alkali metal based hydride catalysts.

I am so sorry; I do not accept the hydrino as a power generating mechanism … yet.

I still think that nanoplasmonic based nanoparticles integration with light catalyze nuclear based energy release.


RE: Let's build A "Popper" Noble Gas Engine AKA Ppap Engine.
« Reply #2059, on January 22nd, 2014, 10:07 PM »

In the Papp NGE fangroup on facebook, Mark Hugo has uploaded some interesting files en theory.


Matt Watts

Re: Let's build A _____________ ?
« Reply #2060, on March 6th, 2014, 09:16 PM »Last edited on March 6th, 2014, 09:29 PM
Here's a bump in this stale thread with a little review video to get the juices flowing again.


Famous last words:

"And I'm willing to give it to the public."  -- Heinz Klostermann


Re: Let's build A
« Reply #2061, on March 17th, 2014, 08:58 PM »Last edited on March 17th, 2014, 09:13 PM
any more updates?...this is cool stuf :D



Re: Let's build A "Popper" Noble Gas Engine AKA Ppap Engine.
« Reply #2063, on April 6th, 2014, 01:51 PM »

As Russ and his popper device are now in California (and wished success for/in this good move!) i hope that this thread gets more busy again.

Maybe his colleagues can help with the EMP radiation finding and shielding.
And the plasma field is something they might know more about.

I hope they don't force Russ to make scientific papers, but let him go at his strongpoints; practical science and making prototypes and help in building solutions.

Its also for us here a dream come true that he now can put a lot more time and resources at his and our field of interest.

And i also see it as a change that another bridge is build between pro's and amateurs in science, and that both share the aim to better our world, like with 'free' energy.

Its a positive move and his boss is a prudent sensible guy to put Russ talent where it can produce the most.

Matt Watts

Re: Let's build A
« Reply #2064, on April 6th, 2014, 05:00 PM »
Welcome back EZ, I thought we had lost you.

I think Russ will be one of many people that will crack this nut wide open.  Lets all keep our eye on the ball.


Re: Let's build A
« Reply #2065, on April 7th, 2014, 09:23 PM »
To    FaradayEZ or others
I'm returning to this after a long time:
Where are the last news about Russ? Where is he in Ca and working with who?

Jeff Nading

Re: Let's build A "Popper" Noble Gas Engine AKA Ppap Engine.
« Reply #2066, on April 8th, 2014, 12:58 PM »
We don't know exactly, Russ has never said, although we do know it's not area 51 :D


Re: Let's build A "Popper" Noble Gas Engine AKA Ppap Engine.
« Reply #2067, on April 10th, 2014, 02:43 AM »
To Matt, i haven't been much inspired lately to post a lot. I do have been following the downfall of JP Rohner on facebook.

The info about Russ, one can look it up via his video's on his youtube channel rwgresearch something. The organization he is employed by is quantum gravity research(?), so if one finds out where they are located, Russ will be nearby i guess.

Matt Watts



Re: Let's build A "Popper" Noble Gas Engine AKA Ppap Engine.
« Reply #2070, on December 10th, 2014, 02:35 PM »Last edited on December 11th, 2014, 12:28 PM by Cycle
Just wondering, throwing out a random thought that I had... what if the Papp engine was utilizing a modification of the Joule-Thomson effect?

Most gasses cool when expanded and heat up when compressed (or conversely contract when cooled and expand when heated), it's the basis for refrigeration equipment.

Hydrogen, helium and neon, however, have a negative Joule-Thomson coefficient (above their J-T inversion temperatures), in other words, it heats up as it expands. With helium being the most temperature stable, ie: it expands over a wider starting temperature range than hydrogen and neon. Conversely, it cools when it's compressed when above its J-T inversion temperature (-367.6 F for helium).

Now, what if we paired the negative Joule-Thomson coefficient helium with a positive Joule-Thomson coefficient gas (or gasses) with a larger temperature coefficient of expansion than helium, so as to balance the heating:expansion ratio so that we only have to add a tiny bit of energy and it expands (and keeps expanding) without heating up much (nearly adiabatically). We get the gas mixture right up to the cumulative 'zero line' of the J-T coefficient, then rely upon the varying expansion rates of the gasses in the mixture to get our expansion and contraction of the gasses adiabatically.

What stops the expansion process? The piston reaches the end of its cylinder, the gas compresses a bit, that throws it off the J-T coefficient 'zero line', and the process halts (reverses?).

Now, if that's what the Papp engine is using as its basis for operation, and knowing the J-T inversion temperatures and J-T coefficients and temperature coefficients of expansion of all the gasses, we can custom-mix gasses to arrive at an exact J-T coefficient 'zero line' gas mix that has a high temperature coefficient of expansion and contraction, thereby only requiring a tiny power input to achieve large expansion, and removing that tiny power input achieves large contraction.

As regards the "sealing problem" of the noble gasses leaking out of a conventional engine... seal it up. Simple enough. How to get the rotary power out of the engine if its entire surface is sealed? Magnetic drive. Just like the mag-drive pumps use. Now it's completely sealed, you don't lose your noble gasses, and you can transmit the power out of the engine to do useful work.