The Papp process is not complicated. The essence of the process can be described in 20 words or less. Axil just described it in 13 words. Papp knew this, but took those words to his grave. He may not have used the term “nanoparticles”, but he knew that he had discovered a way to concentrate the gases, and later release free gas atoms to form a pressure increase at a substantially constant temperature. Certainly NOT a pressure increase as described by Jacques Charles.
My signature that I use for my posts here may explain it the best:
"One of the chief theories as to why Papp never told anyone of his operations was [because] it was believed that it would be so completely simple that Papp assumed people would take it and laugh off paying for it." Bob Rohner
I would like to expand more on the nanoparticles and light idea. I believe that the evidence supports this idea and that Papp created large and stable nano-gas-particles (ngp’s). Further, the ngp’s were formed from one or more of the following four gases, Xe, Kr, Ar, Ne, and ngp’s, once formed, act to adsorb helium on the outside surfaces of the crystalline ngp structure. It is these fully adsorbed, to saturation, at STP (standard temperature and pressure) ngp's that are injected into the cylinders of the engine and desorbed by the energy of the light.
This adsorption/desorption process may be as simple as the adsorption of CO2 on to activated charcoal or any number of gases on to the various types of Zeolite molecular sieves, in that the ngp’s absorb energy from the light and thus heat up to desorb the helium. The amount of pressure from the desorption process is a function of the temperature of the heated adsorbent. In the case of the ngp’s, the pressure is a function of the brightness or energy of the light.
If the light created to heat the ngp’s were constant like the gliding arc in the Roser-Volvo engine, or from multiple capacitive discharge flashes used in the 2-cylinder-built-by-Bob engine, then the pressure pulse would be substantially at constant pressure during the power stroke. Further, if each ngp desorbs approximately 75 helium atoms, then sufficient pressure (75 atm.) would be produced to create the power demonstrated in the dyno certified engine.
It is now 25 years after Papp’s death. There have been millions spent by many different entities attempting to duplicate the process to no avail. It is time to wake up and concede to the fact that the descriptions in Papp’s patents are simply a recipe for failure. Once this step is taken, we can begin to look at what was deceptively over described, and/or not mentioned at all, for clues to the truth.
First, the gas was NOT processed in the Roser-Volvo engine as described, it was processed externally and added to the engine.
But certainly the ngp + helium can’t apply to the Roser-Volvo, because helium was never mentioned in the patent. But now that we have profiled Papp’s character and deception, perhaps this conspicuous omission of helium is a clue! Is it mentioned in the claims? If it is a necessary ingredient and is excluded in the claims, then (in Papp’s mind) there will be no patent protection. The following is the first (independent) claim:
“1. A variable volume gas-tight chamber within a normally stationary hollow cylinder element and a hollow element telescopically related to the first element and movable with relation to the first element, said chamber, when in expanded position, containing an effective charge of 10 to percent of de-oxygenated water, by volume, and the remaining volume being composed of a mixture of three or more gases whose atoms do not have their outer quantum levels completely satisfied with orbital electrons, the contents of said chamber being at a pressure of between about 1.0 and 3.0 atmospheres at normal temperatures.”
If by “gases whose atoms do not have their outer quantum levels completely satisfied with orbital electrons”, Papp means the inert gases, then he just included helium.
Note that any number of dependent claims can be written to add additional data (true or false) to a independent claim, and will not adversely affect the original independent claim if such information is false. Therefore, Claim #3, if false, does not distract from Claim #1.
I floated the gas cluster idea to this group in this thread over a year ago on December 26th, 2012. I find it very disheartening that the gas cluster or ngp idea does not catch on for the simple reason that current rare gas cluster research (academia) has not made stable clusters!
Lets have a look at academia’s process. Connect a chamber to a vacuum pump, turn on the pump, and squirt some expensive rare gas into the chamber. The gas expands and cools, and the random motion of the bulk gas is now ordered and linear where the collisions can occur in such a fashion as to form and build clusters. Next, the clusters are sucked into the vacuum pump and blown out the exhaust pipe. These academic types (bless they lil hearts) would not have a clue if they created a stable cluster or not.
The folks that accept that the Papp engine was a reality, also must accept that there is some sort of extraordinary process working within. But it is a sad state that these same folks would rather believe that there is a mini Tokamak fusion reaction going on in the cylinder, that somehow converts all of that heat energy into mechanical energy, without heating the engine, than to even begin to consider a process that could produce pressure and useful work at room temperature with little input power.
In one of the discussions on fb, Bob stated that Papp would sometimes show up with his magic gas concoction “stored” in a television CRT. I believe that this is a HUGE clue. The CRT flask with the guns, throated filaments, anode connection and deflection coil intact, and a means to evacuate and fill the flask, has ALL of the components in Figure 18 of US4428193. Of course, the CRT does not have the two coils of tubes (inner and outer) around the thing, but cooling (the real reason for the inner tubing coil – see the LN2 connection (not mentioned) in Figure 19D near the designation ‘B30’) can be accomplished by chilling the CRT flask using some of Don Roser,s refrigeration equipment, or dipping in LN2. Same goes for the Florence flasks Papp showed up in the desert with. Yep, all the flasks contained the same preprocessed mix. Any electrodes needed to ionize, or inject RF readily sharpened and poked through the rubber stopper, and removed when done. Of course, the deflection coil with 15.734 kHz applied would be slipped over the neck of the flask, and then removed when the process completes.
So what could be the gas process? Roughly, I believe a stoppered flask is evacuated, then initially filled to one atm (or less) with xenon, for example. Electrodes, possibly throated, are pushed through the stopper, the deflection coil attached. The flask is then dipped into LN2, where the Xe condenses into a liquid (boiling point of Xe is –108C). As the gas condenses, the pressure should be substantially reduced such that the remaining gas would readily ionize. Apply an ionizing voltage. Apply the 15.734 kHz magnetic field, possibly in conjunction with the 27 MHz RF, which both may act to remove the random motion of the gas and cause gas clusters to form and grow. Research suggests that clusters formed from ionized rare gas may be more stable, therefore the ionization step may need particular attention. Gas evaporated from the liquid can go to grow the clusters, as well as injecting more gas through the stopper.
In Post # 2041 in this thread, FaradayEZ quoted some guy from fb. The following statement was made: “Papp could not, and did not, build the engine, Bob and Tom did that for him. There was no place to add any extraneous and unnecessary components to the engine.”
Bob and Tom built the engine – True. There was no place to add any extraneous and unnecessary components to the engine – False.
Papp wanted to hide the fact that he was using a small capacitive discharge in the engine to create his light flash. The capacitor he used was in fact one or both of the high voltage capacitors wrapped around the cylinder, that he said was used to “capture energy from the neutrons, fuktons, whatever…”
The HV capacitors were connected across the buckets, I will call electrodes 1 & 2.
The coils, transistors and diodes were used to build a boost converter (look it up) to create the high voltage to charge the capacitors across electrodes 1 & 2.
The 40 kv from the automotive coil was used as the trigger voltage on a third and intermediate electrode – the one with the pointy protrusion and rectangular plate. Papp wants us to believe that the 40 kv jumps from one pointy protrusion to the other pointy protrusion on the forth electrode. It just won’t make it, too far away. Plus, when the piston is at TDC, it simply jumps to ground (the piston).
So, erase the 4th electrode. Erase the pointy protrusion on the third electrode, but leave the sharp corners on that rectangular plate. What does that leave? A trigatron (look it up).
The gaps are a bit large for a trigatron – true. This was a real problem for Papp, that is why he ultimately resorted to using uranium in the buckets to get the thing to fire.
Look at bob’s video #3. That is NOT and alpha or beta particle emitter making that Geiger counter scream!
The clock frequency for the switching in the boost converter (Tom’s circuit) was derived from a resolver output on the crankshaft of the engine. As the speed of the engine changed, so did that switching frequency. Watch and listen to video #9 and you will hear the coils driven into saturation.
The two cylinder requirement: Not for the reasons Papp stated. It was needed to hide the fact that the AC switching frequency was applied to one cylinder during the up stroke (also helps the re-adorption process) thus making the HV needed for the multiple firings during the down stroke of the other piston.
Timing from Bob “We gave Papp 4 pulses one pulse 5 deg before, then three more 35, 75, 115 after TDC” Why would any reciprocating engine running 500 rpm or less need a 5 degrees before TDC pulse?? Oh yeah, that one just goes to the piston…