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Non-equilibrium polariton condensates entangle properties of lasers, atomic Bose- Einstein condensates (BEC) and semiconductor physics. They provide a great variety of physical phenomena while maintaining a simple theoretical description. Among those phenomena are nonlinear excitations such as solitons or spontaneous spin bifurcations. In this paper I first present a short overview on the theoretical basis of polaritons. Then starting from a scenario of excitation generation in equilibrium BEC I turn to corresponding phenomenona in polariton condensates such as dark soliton formation (black EVO). Later the spin sensitive phenomena such as nonequilibrium bright solitons (Bright EVO)and half-bright solitons in semiconductor microcavities are discussed. Theoretically all the considered scenarios are described by partial differential equations (PDEs) and coupled systems thereof. The system of PDEs defines a so called condensate wave function, which completely describes the experimental relevant aspects of the physical system in a certain parameter regime where condensation occurs. The developed theories enable us particularly to make a variety of statements about excitations such as solitons (dipole) and half-solitons (monopole) in spinor systems forming within a non-equilibrium condensate (needs pumping). It turns out that by those means we can elucidate in particular the experimental implementation of a coherent superposition (this is what makes transmutation NOT produce energy) analog in a spin sensitive setting forming a macroscopic QUBIT within the semiconductor microcavity at temperatures in the Kelvin range.
Degenerate Vacua of the Universe and What Comes Beyond the Standard Model
how could we have missed these particles?