Chiral polarization is the KEY to the LENR reaction

Axil

Re: Chiral polarization is the KEY to the LENR reaction
« Reply #225,  »Last edited
Modified Stoichiometric Oxygen-Hydrogen (MOH) Gas is the best, 100% clean and renewable Fuel and cheap Energy Storage. It could replace all other fuels in few years.
MOH Gas was patented in 2011 as "Ohmasa Gas" by the outstanding Japanese Scientist Dr. Ryushin Omasa.
PATENT : http://disq.us/url?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.patentsencyclopedia.com%2Fapp%2F20110139630%23ixzz3LOxSiPwy%3AQlbxABq-Dz5ahbNo12ShBUgQKGk&cuid=2168707...
VIDEO : See below
MOH/Ohmasa can be produced by a low-power (0.8Wh/L) Ultrasonically-Modified Water Electrolysis, at a cost, close to zero.
MOH Gas can be easily compressed over 200-700bar, liquefied at 1 bar/-178deg.C, unlike the regular OH (HHO, Brown's Gas), which explodes at 2bar and cannot be liquefied.
MOH can be filled and stored for years in CNG/LNG bottles, and pumped in pipelines and tanks.
MOH is SAFE - it cannot be ignited by a spark at normal conditions.
MOH doesn't perform the Hydrogen's drawbacks as Leakages and Bottle/tank/fittings Damaging (Embrittlement, Permeation, Diffusion).
MOH is DENSE : 1m3 Liquid MOH contains 2.5 times more kilograms of Hydrogen (167kg) than 1m3 liquid hydrogen alone (70kg) .
MOH is 100 times CHEAPER than the Hydrogen ($0.10/kg MOH vs $10/kg H) .
MOH is the perfect storage of Pure Hydrogen and Oxygen - they can be easily extracted out of the MOH on-board, on-demand and separated by a simple molecular sieve membrane.
MOH's Gas-Plasma Flame heats some refractory UHTCs as ZrO2 and Ta4HfC5 over 5,500deg.C.
MOH gas can be used as a single Direct Fuel, as it is, for direct-injection in IC engines, or in MOH-Seebeck Gas-Electric Engine-Generators -- www.linkedin.com/pulse/moh-...
A 100L Liquid-MOH bottle will provide a 2000-miles car drive range.
MOH can be produced "on-demand", out of water electrolysis, ON-BOARD Trains and Ships (even out of Seawater).
MOH gas could be stored in bottles/tanks, shipped everywhere and sold as regular CNG/LNG/LPG.
https://www.linkedin.com/pu......
grainis@abv.bg


https://youtu.be/NUPE0Z9V82E

DogOne replicated LeClair's cavitation reactor using a washing machine pump, but he said it was hard to maintain cavitation since the water flow needed constant adjustment. The Vibrator seems to be walk away idiot proof. This cavitation built gas is an improved version of HHO, Brown's Gas.

Matt Watts

Re: Chiral polarization is the KEY to the LENR reaction
« Reply #226,  »Last edited
Quote from Axil on June 14th, 07:58 PM
DogOne replicated LeClair's cavitation reactor using a washing machine pump, but he said it was hard to maintain cavitation since the water flow needed constant adjustment.
Cavitation is certainly an approach that works.  Liquid fuel for LENR may not be the best way though.

Here's an old one for review:


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UTvaX3vRtRA

And I think Axil has zeroed in on why these units are somewhat unpredictable.


Personally, I like Dr. Ohmasa's system.  Probably ought to study his patent and see how this ultrasonic vibration thing works...

kenssurplus

Re: Chiral polarization is the KEY to the LENR reaction
« Reply #227,  »Last edited
Quote from Axil on June 14th, 07:58 PM
Modified Stoichiometric Oxygen-Hydrogen (MOH) Gas is the best, 100% clean and renewable Fuel and cheap Energy Storage. It could replace all other fuels in few years.
MOH Gas was patented in 2011 as "Ohmasa Gas" by the outstanding Japanese Scientist Dr. Ryushin Omasa.
PATENT : http://www.patentsencyclope...
VIDEO : See below
MOH/Ohmasa can be produced by a low-power (0.8Wh/L) Ultrasonically-Modified Water Electrolysis, at a cost, close to zero.
MOH Gas can be easily compressed over 200-700bar, liquefied at 1 bar/-178deg.C, unlike the regular OH (HHO, Brown's Gas), which explodes at 2bar and cannot be liquefied.
MOH can be filled and stored for years in CNG/LNG bottles, and pumped in pipelines and tanks.
MOH is SAFE - it cannot be ignited by a spark at normal conditions.
MOH doesn't perform the Hydrogen's drawbacks as Leakages and Bottle/tank/fittings Damaging (Embrittlement, Permeation, Diffusion).
MOH is DENSE : 1m3 Liquid MOH contains 2.5 times more kilograms of Hydrogen (167kg) than 1m3 liquid hydrogen alone (70kg) .
MOH is 100 times CHEAPER than the Hydrogen ($0.10/kg MOH vs $10/kg H) .
MOH is the perfect storage of Pure Hydrogen and Oxygen - they can be easily extracted out of the MOH on-board, on-demand and separated by a simple molecular sieve membrane.
MOH's Gas-Plasma Flame heats some refractory UHTCs as ZrO2 and Ta4HfC5 over 5,500deg.C.
MOH gas can be used as a single Direct Fuel, as it is, for direct-injection in IC engines, or in MOH-Seebeck Gas-Electric Engine-Generators -- www.linkedin.com/pulse/moh-...
A 100L Liquid-MOH bottle will provide a 2000-miles car drive range.
MOH can be produced "on-demand", out of water electrolysis, ON-BOARD Trains and Ships (even out of Seawater).
MOH gas could be stored in bottles/tanks, shipped everywhere and sold as regular CNG/LNG/LPG.
https://www.linkedin.com/pu......
grainis@abv.bg


https://youtu.be/NUPE0Z9V82E

DogOne replicated LeClair's cavitation reactor using a washing machine pump, but he said it was hard to maintain cavitation since the water flow needed constant adjustment. The Vibrator seems to be walk away idiot proof. This cavitation built gas is an improved version of HHO, Brown's Gas.
This video appears to be at least 10 (ten) years old as the date at the end says 2009.  I would have thought that there would be a more up to date video or other information that is recent.  Anyone know of any?

Also Dr Ito mentions that explosion does not happen as long as the proper infrastructure is provided. I wonder what he is referring to there?

I tried a couple of cavitation experiments several years ago, but my test apparatus failed mysteriously (metal turning to powder, and / or the pump cavitating itself to pieces).  I did not test the expected electrolysis gasses for any different characteristics, nor for quantity. No further work was done on my test setup after the failure.
 

Matt Watts

Re: Chiral polarization is the KEY to the LENR reaction
« Reply #228,  »
Quote from kenssurplus on June 14th, 10:53 PM
Also Dr Ito mentions that explosion does not happen as long as the proper infrastructure is provided. I wonder what he is referring to there?
Lots of talk about nano-bubbles lately, I wonder if:

Axil

Re: Chiral polarization is the KEY to the LENR reaction
« Reply #229,  »Last edited

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hAlhKaWWzLM

OHMA - Ohmasa vibration technology - MFMPs first look


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LU7HTOZ5sZA

In this video, I would assume that the OHMASA Gas generator has a higher EVO concentration and/or quantity type as the gas causes the same grade of Titanium plate as was tested to explode very easily.

Not all types of OHMASA Gas preform the same. The gas type gets its own characteristic nature from the chemical compound that is added to the deionized water when the gas is being manufactured. The EVO type that is being produced is a function of the particular element(s) that are being compressed into the ultra dense state by the implosion of the cavitation bubbles that are being carried as vapor inside these imploding bubbles.

The gas also carries a static charge produced by the electrons from the realization of virtual particle pairs from the vacuum. We have seen these electrons produced in the LION reactor and also within Rossi's plasma. It is these realized electrons that Rossi is trying to capture in his new prototype SK reactor controller design. As he is demonstrating, OHMASA can use these realized electrons to power an LED that is connected to the flow of gas.


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Aacm0_MqNlU
Re: Chiral polarization is the KEY to the LENR reaction
« Reply #230,  »Last edited

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nVwmr7WNtNA

The black EVO must be changing the nature of the way chemical reactions behave that usually results in a oxygen/hydrogen explosion. But in the spark ignition of the QHMASA gas, the EVOs are destroyed by the spark and this brings back the normal state of the vacuum so that the usual explosive behavior of oxygen/hydrogen returns.

There seems to be a time lag in this re-normalization of the state of the vacuum, since there is a lack of instantaneous power observed during acceleration.
Re: Chiral polarization is the KEY to the LENR reaction
« Reply #231,  »
Cavitation has long been a area of LENR research that has been considered a separate area of LENR research. The cold fusion meme incorrectly posited that the cavitation bubble produced enough pressure upon implosion to cause hydrogen to transmute into helium.

What Bob Greenyer of MFMP has shown here is that cavitation is just another of the many methods where self sustaining plasmoids produce magnetic flux tubes that have inspired his upcoming  O-day concepts.

The behavior of O-gas provides deep insights into the theory of the LENR reaction that other methods of producing the plasamoid does not. This unique behavior connects cavitation to the RF method that Hutchinson effect uses demonstrates  the softening of metal and the bright light emissions from metal that occurs underwater in the ECCO reaction.

O-gas is a LENR fuel that anyone can produce and then use to build his or her own LENR reactor. This is a true breakthrough for LENR popularization.
Re: Chiral polarization is the KEY to the LENR reaction
« Reply #232,  »Last edited
Cavitation has long been a separate an unique area of LENR research. But one common thread in the cold fusion meme incorrectly posits that the cavitation bubble produced enough pressure upon implosion to cause hydrogen to transmute into helium.

What Bob Greenyer of MFMP has shown here is that cavitation is just another of the many methods where self sustaining plasmoids produce magnetic flux tubes through the observation of strange radiation that has inspired his upcoming  O-day concepts.

The behavior of O-gas provides deep insights into the theory of the LENR reaction that other methods of producing the plasmoid does not. This unique behavior connects cavitation to the RF method that Hutchinson effect  demonstrates  in the softening of metal and the bright light emissions from metal that occurs underwater in the ECCO reaction.

O-gas is a LENR fuel that anyone can produce and then use to build his or her own personalized  LENR reactor. This is a true breakthrough for LENR popularization.

I think that O-gas production can become a very low cost way to get into LENR research that could make LENR a popular science based hobby whereby hundreds if not thousands of LENR enthusiasts can contribute to the advancement of open sourced LENR.

It is not the gatekeepers of science that will bring LENR technology to the world, but the amateur hobbyist who will make the discoveries that will place LENR into every home and every lab all over the world in an ever rising tide of enthusiasm.
Re: Chiral polarization is the KEY to the LENR reaction
« Reply #233,  »Last edited
The cavitation bubble implosion used to produce Ohama gas is compressing the alkali additive in the cavitating solution to the point where full function EVOs are produced in the Ohama gas. These EVOs change the nature of space/time that the oxyhydrogen gas exists in both in use and in storage. This modification of the vacuum has an effect on how oxyhydrogen behaves.

During his demo, Ohama did repeat maybe 100 times that his gas was not the same as Browns gas as it can be compressed and cooled and stored etc in ways that browns gas cannot.

It does have some similar properties, like effect on metals. The biggest is the exact same flame temperature, we determined 130.2ºC and the Moray B. King article classic Brown's gas article said there were multiple sources that determined 130ºC

Ohama said that the vibrator is key... It is the vibrator that produces the EVOs which make all the difference.

In overview, the LENR reaction can be organized into 3 power levels, Brown's gas is LENR active in power level 1 or the least powerful level on the LENR power scale whereas Ohama gas is active at power level 3 or the most powerful level on the LENR power scale.

It is like Piantilli's level 1 system which uses irregular surfaces, pits and spikes, on nickel bars to produce the LENR reaction whereas Rossi and LION uses level 3 or the fuel based LENR level, the most powerful LENR level.

Level 2 is centered on nano particles as a host for plasmoid development. Both Level 1 and level 2 hosts must be constantly fed (pumped) new energy to be maintained. The level 3 is a alkali based form of ultra dense matter that is also a nanowire, produced through high levels of compression but these ultra dense nanowires are superconducting and become self sustaining because there is little loss in the energy that is being stored within the plasmoid. In level 3 hosts, pumping is not necessary, they can exist on their own.

The depictions below show how the EMF based plasmoids naturally form on Level 2 and 3 LENR host nanowires.



Re: Chiral polarization is the KEY to the LENR reaction
« Reply #234,  »
For anybody who is still interested in building their own LENR reactor, there is some good news. You may now be able to build your own family room heater. Mizuno wants people to replicate his experiment and to that end, he has provided both a detailed and simple recipe.

Thanks to Jed Rothwell for posting on Vortex-l a link to a preprint of a paper by Japanese LENR researcher Tadahiko Mizuno and Rothwell that will be presented at ICCF-22 in Italy later this year.

The title is: Increased Excess Heat from Palladium Deposited on Nickel

http://lenr-canr.org/acrobat/MizunoTincreasede.pdf

Here is the abstract:

We have developed an improved method of producing excess heat with nickel mesh coated with palladium. The new method produces higher power, a larger output to input ratio, and it can be controlled effectively. With 50 W of input, it produces ~250 W of excess heat, and with 300 W it produces ~2 to 3 kW. This paper is a comprehensive description of the apparatus, the reactant, and the method. We hope this paper will allow others to replicate the experiment.

The COP ranges reported here are between 5 and 10, which is very impressive as these are ranges that are hard to argue away as noise, and show potential for commercial application. The fact that he is encouraging replications is also very interesting, and if successful replications occur it would be very important for the field of LENR.

Here’s an image from the paper — the device was apparently used to heat a room in the north of Japan last winter:


Lynx

Re: Chiral polarization is the KEY to the LENR reaction
« Reply #235,  »
Quote
Such room heaters are common in Japan
Most interesting :thumbsup:
So what are they called then in Japan..........that is, what would be the corresponding English word for such a heater?

Axil

Re: Chiral polarization is the KEY to the LENR reaction
« Reply #236,  »
I (Jed Rothwell) made some minor changes to the paper and uploaded a new version. Biggest change, p. 12:

Rubbing is done with a palladium rod, 100 mm long, diameter 5.0 mm, 99.95% purity. Before rubbing the mesh, weight it with a precision scale. Then vigorously rub the entire surface, left and right and up and down. Turn the mesh over and rub the other side. Weigh the mesh again. Continue until the weight increases by ~50 mg.
Re: Chiral polarization is the KEY to the LENR reaction
« Reply #237,  »
 
Mizuno Responds to Additional Questions
 
On the Vortex-l mailing list Jed Rothwell has posted some questions that have been asked of Tadahiko Mizuno about replicating his recently published CF/LENR experiment. Jed, who speaks and reads Japanese, acts somewhat as an intermediary between interested experimenters because of the language barrier, so the answers he provides are his translations.

Q. Does the mass of reactant matter?

A. The more reactant you have, the better, so please put in as much as possible.

Q. Is there an optimum number of layers?

A. Probably, the more layers the better, without an upper limit.

Q. Is the choice of Pd important?

A. Probably not. But you should rub it hard. The hypothesis is that by strongly rubbing the Pd into the Ni, you break up the oxide layer and create complex phases of metal on metal. That’s what I think is happening, but I do not understand the mechanism yet.

Q. What about the choice of detergent, or the choice of the scrubbing pad?

A. I do not suppose the choice of detergent has an effect on excess heat generation. It probably has nothing to do with it. Just use whatever type you like. However, be sure to rinse thoroughly. This is necessary. I also doubt the choice of scrub pad has anything to do with heat generation. However, be sure to scrub the mesh thoroughly and then wash with alcohol.

In addition to this Q & A, Jed Rothwell reported on LENR Forum that he has revised the paper he and Mizuno jointly published. The updated version can be accessed here:

https://www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/MizunoTincreasede.pdf

He says the most important revision is on page 12:

Three meshes are prepared for one test. . . .

Rubbing is done with a palladium rod, 100 mm long, diameter 5.0 mm, 99.95% purity. Before rubbing the mesh, weigh it with a precision scale. Then vigorously rub the entire surface, left and right and up and down. Turn the mesh over and rub the other side. Weigh the mesh again. Continue until the weight increases by 15 to 20 mg. The weight of the stack of three meshes should increase by about 50 mg.
Re: Chiral polarization is the KEY to the LENR reaction
« Reply #238,  »Last edited
Will using palladium leaf work as a zero waste way to apply palladium to the nickel mesh?

Using Leaf might be a way to only buy what you need to avoid waste.

Lay the palladium leaf over the mesh so that it covers the mesh, then use a burnishing tool to press the palladium into the surface of the mesh. Place another mesh under the mesh in process to collect any leaf that is pushed through the mesh.

Palladium leaves are 3-1/8” square, available in both loose and transfer leaf, and are packaged in books of 25 leaves each, or packs of 500 leaves.

Composition: 99.9% Pd

3-3/8" x 3-3/8" Gold Leaf (Large Size), Palladium Leaf

Leaves.....in2.........ft2............m2
25............284.......1.98..........0.19
500.........5797......40.3..........3.74

Divide the square meter coverage size in half to process both sides of the mesh.

Use silver leaf to tryout the method before you spend lots of money.

Price

https://www.goldenleafproducts.com/order-palladium-leaf.html#

https://www.goldenleafproducts.com/index.html
Re: Chiral polarization is the KEY to the LENR reaction
« Reply #239,  »
Ken Shoulders contribution to LENR theory: the Exotic Vacuum Object (EVO) might be useful for more things that just LENR. MFMP has just photographed an EVO near a strange radiation track recently using a low powered microscope. The EVO being a Bose condensate is an ideal q-bit, a primary logic component of a quantum computer. It is self powered, coherent, superfluidic and able to form a Bose condensate. With the acceptance and understanding of this aspect of the LENR reaction by science, that is, the understanding about what EVOs are and the details about how they work, this understanding will form a LENR knowledge base that will be a revolutionary breakthrough for the field of quantum computing.

The major job of the Q-bit is to enter a state of quantum mechanical superposition that gives the q-pit the ability to solve probabilistic and exponential based problems, learn and even think. The number of q-bits that can be created in a quantum computer enables the count of superpositions that this computer can support to be equal to the 2 power exponent of the number of those q-bits. 72 q-bits are the max so far implemented. But as we have seen in the LION reactor, hundreds or even thousands of EVOs exist inside a single micro diamond. A LENR system might one day support billions of EVOs just like the number of neurons inside the human brain.

LENR tech could support an EVO based quantum computer that can run at extremely high temperatures and supports millions of q-bits indefinably in which the neuron like EVO is everlasting. With that level of processing power, a eternal LENR machine can be built that can think and learn just like people do.

For more information on the new directions in Quantum research see:

Job One for Quantum Computers: Boost Artificial Intelligence

The fusion of quantum computing and machine learning has become a booming research area. Can it possibly live up to its high expectations?

https://www.quantamagazine.org/job-one-for-quantum-computers-boost-artificial-intelligence-20180129/
Quote
Leaving aside whether the human brain is a quantum computer — a highly contentious question — it sometimes acts as if it were one. Human behavior is notoriously contextual; our preferences are formed by the choices we are given, in ways that defy logic. In this, we are like quantum particles. “The way you ask questions and the ordering matters and that is something that is very typical in quantum data sets,” Perdomo-Ortiz said. So a quantum machine-learning system might be a natural way to study human cognitive biases.
https://phys.org/news/2019-01-quantum-brain.html

Quantum computer: We're planning to create one that acts like a brain
Quote
We need much more advanced AI if we want it to help us create things like truly autonomous self-driving cars and systems for accurately managing the traffic flow of an entire city in real-time. Many attempts to build this kind of software involve writing code that mimics the way neurons in the human brain work and combining many of these artificial neurons into a network. Each neuron mimics a decision-making process by taking a number of input signals and processing them to give an output corresponding to either "yes" or "no".
Re: Chiral polarization is the KEY to the LENR reaction
« Reply #240,  »
In order to understand both the quantum computer and the LENR reaction, we need to know what superposition is and what it does to the matter and energy that it enfolds when it is active. This level of understanding of the weirdness of superposition makes LENR are very hard thing to get our minds around.

An introduction to superposition.


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hkmoZ8e5Qn0

When an EVO reconfigures transmuted matter, the energy that this process produces and the new elements that the transmutation has created are removed from observation from the real world. This matter and energy exists. and it is going it own way but it is not part of the real world that we can observe.

Quantum Theory Demonstrated: Observation Affects Reality

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/1998/02/980227055013.htm


When the state of superposition terminates, then the matter and energy will appear where it actually is. It could be where we think it should be, but it could be in a place that we would never understand how it got there.

We have seen in experiments, that transmutation only becomes observable when the state of superposition terminates. The transmuted elements appear at the spot that the EVO was last at. All the energy and matter that happened during the transmutation process has gone their own ways, possibly as far as many millions of miles away. the particles that are produced during the time that superposition was active do not interact with matter, These particles just appear when the superposition is done.

There are times when the LENR reaction will make a great deal of matter and energy disappear from where we expected them to be, but they have gone their own way to a place where we would have never expected then to go.

In the O-gas flame as well as HHO and brown's gas, the flame is very cold during combustion because the LENR active particles carried by the gas are sending the heat produced by the flame to parts unknown.
Re: Chiral polarization is the KEY to the LENR reaction
« Reply #241,  »
Jed Rothwell has created a new document to supplement Mizuno's recent paper:

Mizuno, T. and J. Rothwell, Supplemental Information on 'Increased Excess Heat from Palladium Deposited on Nickel' 2019: LENR-CANR.org

https://www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/MizunoTsupplement.pdf 

So far it includes three sections:


Nickel Toxicity

WARNING: The steps described in this paper can produce fine nickel powder, which can be toxic. The procedures in this paper should be performed in properly equipped laboratory, in a glove box or other enclosure. Disposable gloves and masks should be worn when handling these materials. They should also be worn to avoid contaminating the materials. Only people skilled in the art should attempt to replicate this experiment. 

Q&A Responses by Mizuno

Uploaded here already


Temperature Distribution Study

An image and graph showing the surface temperature of the reactor.
Re: Chiral polarization is the KEY to the LENR reaction
« Reply #242,  »
LENR is a devilishly complicated process to get our heads around. The nature of the electron that is the context of this thread is the first stepping stone or a foundation mechanism upon which the more complicated processes that go on in the LENR reaction occur.

The first stage of the LENR reaction is the construction of the LENR active agent or what Rossi calls in paragraph 4 of his theory paper “Neutral pico-metric aggregates”. This structure is also called Holmlid’s ultra-dense hydrogen.  Yes, Rossi to his credit is drinking the Holmlid Cool aid.This special form of hydrogen is also called metallic hydrogen because it acts like a metal. It is superconducting and has a lot of hydrogen nucleons consolidated in its core and lots of electrons that form a spin wave (like a rolling ocean of electrons) scattered around the outside of this positively charged core.

Rossi mentions the formation of “bosonic electrons”. This is how that works. All metal nanowires will develop a polariton bosonic cover when light (infrared and/or visible) entangles with electrons on the surface of the nanowire. This entanglement process is where light and electrons, each having the same energy levels, resonate together to form a polariton, a new combined light/electron waveform. This polariton has many of both the properties of light and many of electrons.

Rossi produces these “Neutral pico-metric aggregates” when he manufactures his fuel. He must use some sort of high compression mechanism that is able to transform either hydrogen and/or lithium into its ultra-dense form. It is most likely lithium since lithium is four times easier to compress through pressure than is hydrogen.

Now we have a superconducting hydrogen/lithium nanowire that is coherent and has formed a polariton Bose condensate outer cover where many millions of polaritons are coherent, they all live and quickly die in picoseconds but the condensate lives on under it own special set of quantum mechanical rules. This superconducting supported Bose condensate has its own special properties that can do some very special things to both matter, time, reality, energy, and the vacuum.

One of the very weird properties of this condensate is that it can split off the spin part of the polariton into “spinons” that can form a spin based plasmoid that gives magnetism mobility and independence where the plasmoid can travel on its own either in an active or a suspended state to places far away from the matter that has given it birth. The hard to understand workings of the polariton condensate is explained in this next section as follows.

I forgive you right up front for not believing in EMF analog black holes. Not even Einstein believed that black holes were real even though his maths said that they were possible. Science also believes that Bose-Einstein condensates can form only when clouds of gassy atoms cool to within a few billionths of a degree above absolute zero.

LENR is one step ahead of science since a polariton condensate is formed from a blend of light and electrons. The extremely light mass of the polariton: less than 10^-11 the mass of the electron, means that its condensate can form at temperatures over 100,000C.  So a polariton condensate can form in plasma. The ultra-dense matter that is formed in LENR fuel can float around inside plasma or an oxyhydrogen flame unaffected by heat and produce the LENR reaction including all the exceeding weird QM and GR stuff that goes along with it.

One of the states that a polariton condensate can enter is the dark mode. This is when the polaritons that make up the condensate begin producing x-waves.Electromagnetic X-waves travel faster than the speed of light, and X-wave pulses can have superluminal phase and group velocity. This superluminal behavior of light makes the development of an optical event horizon possible.


An optical event horizon is described as the boundary within which the black hole's escape velocity is greater than the speed of light. However, a more accurate description is that within this horizon, all lightlike paths (paths that light could take) and hence all paths in the forward light cones of particles within the horizon, are warped so as to fall farther into the hole. Once a particle is inside the horizon, moving into the hole is as inevitable as moving forward in time, and can actually be thought of as equivalent to doing so, depending on the space time coordinate system used. Light that travels faster than light is needed to confine light inside an event horizon.

So far, nonlinear X-waves have been only observed in nonlinearoptics experiments, and have been predicted to occur in a variety of nonlinear media including Bose–Einstein condensates. These special waveforms have been seen recently in polariton condensates.
Quote
https://www.nature.com/articles/lsa2017119

Superluminal X-waves in a polariton quantum fluid
This special black out condition causes the polariton condensate (PC) to absorb light thought the formation of an optical event horizon. The PC acts like a black hole and this is where all the weirdness in the LENR reaction comes from. When black hole behavior is mixed with quantum mechanical superposition (QMSP), then we are in for a wild ride indeed.

There are two separate reaction types that occur when the LENR reaction is active: vacuum and nuclear/sub-nuclear reactions. Time stops at and inside the event horizon. This means that any reaction that happens inside the event horizon happens instantaneously at our reference frame. Inside the horizon, the nuclear reaction happens at normal speeds. But because the polarion condensate is in a state of superposition, the energy and particles that were produced by the nuclear reaction are not observed.  This stuff is lost to us in our frame of reference when the state of superposition is long-lasting relative to the speed of the nuclear reaction.

Neutrons, positron, and gamma rays could be produced by the nuclear reaction but we will never see them in our reference frame. The energy that the nuclear reaction generates is also lost to our reality, but what remains is the stabilized ash that the nuclear reaction has produced through transmutation.

If the PC is disrupted fast enough in pico seconds, and the state of QM superposition is destroyed, then all the stuff that the nuclear reaction generates can be felt in out reality.

The extraction of vacuum energy from outside the event horizon gets out to us because this extraction happens just outside of the horizon. So most likely, the LENR reaction only generates vacuum energy that we can experience in out frame of reference.

Here is the punch line… electrons must always be accompanied by its negative energy partner (anti-particles) when it is created from the vacuum: the positron. The event horizon can extract electron/positron pairs from the vacuum but being negative mass, the positron is captured inside the event horizon. The positron therefore cannot be experienced by our reality and is therefore lost to us. The electrons that are extracted from the vacuum can be experienced by our reality because they were created just outside of the event horizon. Electrons will gradually build up as a static charge inside a LENR reactor and can be extracted as an electrical current.

Re: Chiral polarization is the KEY to the LENR reaction
« Reply #243,  »Last edited
Here below is my favorite accidentally stumbled upon LENR reaction in a science experiment.

http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/0957-4484/26/23/234002

SPECIAL
Experimental observation of anomalous thermal radiation from a three-dimensional metallic photonic crystal
Quote
Abstract

We report some striking results on thermal radiation properties of a resonantly coupled cavity photonic crystal (PhC) at elevated temperatures (T = 400–900 K). We experimentally found that at resonant wavelengths, λ = 1.1, 1.64, 2.85 μm, the PhC emission is spectrally selective, quasi-coherent, directional, and shows significant deviation from Planck's blackbody law at equilibrium. The presence of non-equilibrium effects, driven by strong thermal excitation and cavity resonance, may be the major cause for our experimental observation.
Sooner or later, science as bound to stumble over some sort of LENR reaction.

Thermal radiation coming off this photonic crystal (PhC) is up to 50 times stronger than blackbody radiation at certain frequencies. That radiation is coherent, directional, and focused.

This finding has the researchers puzzled.

I speculated that Surface Plasmon Polaritons (SPP)s formed inside the coupled cavities in this crystal form a polariton Bose condensate that emits hawking radiation at specific thermal frequencies. The same polariton based process is what is producing heat in Mizumo's mesh reactor. There also may be some overunity here: more energy out than in, since there was a maximum 50X increase (see figure 2 in PDF) in heat energy.
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The radiative power of cavity-PhC exhibits order-of-magnitude enhancement (6-50 times) over that of a blackbody at the peak wavelengths.
PDF: https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/0957-4484/26/23/234002/ampdf

Note that radiation is coherent, directional, and focused. Like a laser, this is a sign that quantum mechanical mechanisms are at play in producing this excess energy.

page 10
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We show that the emission is spectral selective, directional, quasi-coherent, and also deviates from that predicted by Planck’s blackbody law. We believe a strong plasmonic, resonant feedback in the metallic PhC could drive the PhC excited-states to deviate significantly from equilibrium.
Also note that LENR energy production does not follow Planck’s blackbody law contrary to what Rossi is claiming in his COP calculations.
Re: Chiral polarization is the KEY to the LENR reaction
« Reply #244,  »
From studying LENR results over the years, it is becoming increasingly apparent to me that LENR has a major issue to deal with. LENR makes matter and energy disappear. A major problem with LENR reactors is that they fall apart over time. This highly corrosive effect that these reactors suffer is due to this nasty issue of matter and energy degeneration. This degenerative process only gets worse when the power output level of the reactor goes up.

The reactor meltdown problem has delayed any LENR application from reaching a successful conclusion. LENR is highly corrosive of the structure of the reactor as reflected it its power output. LENR's ability to corrode the structure of the reactor is a function of its power output. A low powered LENR reactor will function for a long time but its usefulness is limited. A high output reactor even if it is built like a tank does not perform for very long.

And yet the amazing contradiction that the LENR reaction presents is that it does not produce any high energy particles or ionizing radiation. The question that hangs in the air is where does all that matter and energy go when the LENR reaction is active?

Here is my take on this issue. I believe that LENR involves the interaction of two major cosmological principles: Quantum mechanical superposition and general relativity. Through looking at the results of some recent LENR experiments, it appears that during the LENR reaction, time stops inside the Black EVO. When LENR active processes occur, such as transmutation and superposition/tunneling, they occur under a condition where time is not moving forward. This superposition proceeds as a macro level quantum mechanical process that is occurring were both material and energy in bulk is made to dematerialize or tunnel possibly in a state of coherent superposition. This coherent material may be removed in a condition that is out of sync with normal matter and time and being in the state of superposition not able to interact with its previously normal form except through the force of gravity. Remaining perpetually coherent, it is a superfluid. This lack of energy and particle realization while the LENR reaction is active could be why LENR has not killed the experimenters that work with LENR reactors.

This disappearing corroded matter and energy could be where dark matter is coming from.

In summary, this dark matter could be the result of a continuing ubiquitous in as not yet recognized intersection of general relativity and quantum mechanical tunneling during this corrosion process that transforms normal matter into a ghost state possibly through a time based out of sync situation between normal matter and space-time.
Re: Chiral polarization is the KEY to the LENR reaction
« Reply #245,  »
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Dewey
July 13, 2019 at 1:13 PM
Dr Rossi,
I return to the comment of Neri Accornero: can you give a hint, not superficial, but not too difficult, about what can happen if your effect is not fusion, not fission, not chemical reaction?

Andrea Rossi
July 13, 2019 at 1:33 PM
Dewey:
Please go to
http://www.researchgate.net/publication/330601653_E-Cat_SK_and_long_range_particle_interactions
All the references cited here are the same reported in the above mentioned paper.
In [13] a fundamental connection between Aharonov-Bohm equations and an electron model is proposed, starting from a geometric interpretation of the electron wave-function complex phase [6,8,1].
This approach suggests the possibility of efficiently creating electron condensates exploiting the Aharonov-Bohm effect, a phenomenon that shows the dependence of electron wave-function phase from electromagnetic potentials [9].
Warm Regards,
A.R.
------------------------
Aharonov-Bohm effect
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aharonov%E2%80%93Bohm_effect

Rossi is looking for a quantum mechanical mechanism that enables an ensemble of electrons to convert from a fermion to a boson so that those electrons can form a Bose condensate(BC). A BC is the means by which electrons can form a meta-stable ensemble that can hold together in a long lived plasmoid configuration which is connected to ultra dense matter: what Rossi calls "Neutral pico-metric aggregates".

The intent of this posit is very close to what is really going on in the LENR reaction. Rossi has not yet stumbled upon the correct quantum mechanical mechanism that enables electrons to change their fermionic nature into bosons.

The correct mechanism involves the entanglement of phonons, excitons or plasmons polaritons with electrons. There is a ton of nanophotonic theory and experimental evidence that covers this subject.

On the theory of three types of polaritons (phonon, exciton and plasmon polaritons)
https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1742-6596/865/1/012007/pdf

The rabbit hole that this subject engenders is as big as all outdoors.  This subject matter is currently a very hot subject in optics. In my opinion, optics is a very difficult area of physics to get our heads around. This subject also leads to many other subjects that are truly mind boggling and beyond current science to explain.

It is also apparent that Rossi must be getting competent professional help in formulating his theory... Rossi is not working alone. It is fair to say based on the very advanced state of his theory of LENR that Rossi also must have something substantial that is working and close to if not currently functional.

kenssurplus

Re: Chiral polarization is the KEY to the LENR reaction
« Reply #246,  »
Axil, thank you for the updates, and for the continued thoughts on the subject.  There is very much interest in this even if no-one replies, or the replies show not much comprehension of the subject.

Axil

Re: Chiral polarization is the KEY to the LENR reaction
« Reply #247,  »
It is generally recognized in grand unification theories that the electroweak force (EMF) and the force of gravity were combined when the universe was just starting out. This is why science believes that the unification of gravity and EMF can occur at high energies.

If there is enough gravity concentrated at one point in space-time, then an event horizon will form. The same event horizon formation process must be true for the concentration of EMF at a point is Space-time since gravity and EMF are basically the same force.

LENR is a result of the condensation of EMF into a state of extreme condensation at a singular point in space-time. All the theory and experimental observations that apply to horizon formation in gravity also apply to the condensation of EMF at a singular point in space-time.

Since this EMF concentration is mostly related to the concentration of light, the resulting EMF horizon also takes on the complicating quantum mechanical properties of superposition. This quantum mechanical complicating property is not present for gravity.

The unification of the electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions could explain where the process of transmutation of elements is coming from in LENR. The environment in and around  the EMF singularity could be where the strong force unification reverts the evolution of matter formation back to the conditions that were prevalent at the earliest epochs in the evolution of infant universe. 

Time dilation is a critical property that makes the LENR virtually impervious to human understanding. We humans do not experience time dilation in the world we live in. Adding in superposition into our everyday world puts the complicated interactions between time dilation, transmutation of elements  and quantum mechanical superposition that occurs in the LENR reaction outside of the understanding of just about everybody. It is going to take a lot of time and effort to educate people about what the LENR reaction is all about.

For further study as follows:
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Grand Unified Theory (GUT)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grand_Unified_Theory

A Grand Unified Theory (GUT) is a model in particle physics in which, at high energy, the three gauge interactions of the Standard Model that define the electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions, or forces, are merged into a single force. Although this unified force has not been directly observed, the many GUT models theorize its existence. If unification of these three interactions is possible, it raises the possibility that there was a grand unification epoch in the very early universe in which these three fundamental interactions were not yet distinct.
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Gravity's effect on the flow of time in General Relativity


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1ENkP0h8nAg
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Twin Paradox in General Relativity


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bjHLboK2M1g

From the perspective of the people in the world outside of the EMF event horizon, the speed that things are happening on or inside that horizon is ultra-fast. But at that horizon, the speed that things are happening is occurring at a normal speed.

This difference in the perspective of time is why we see no nuclear activity going on at or inside the EMF horizon.  These nuclear reactions happen instantaneously from our perspective even if the radioactive isotope that has been formed in transmutation of elements takes billions of years to stabilize.
Re: Chiral polarization is the KEY to the LENR reaction
« Reply #248,  »
Quote
https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/21a1/9da6b2ac3da851177d2f4e93be88f73a330b.pdf

Low Energy Nuclear Reactions resulting as picometer interactions with similarity to K-shell electron capture
H. Hora, G.H. Miley have come up with a theory that explains how transmuted elements will form based on the quark nature of matter. This is applicable to what the mechanism of matter formation must have been when elements first formed during the earliest  times just after the big bang. The way matter forms now inside the LENR reaction at the EMF event horizon is the same as it had occurred just after the big bang.
Re: Chiral polarization is the KEY to the LENR reaction
« Reply #249,  »Last edited
One of the reasons why superconductivity and LENR are so tightly connected is that it would be near impossible to gather and then subsequently maintain enough EMF power to produce an effective EMF event horizon without the support of a superconductive sub-straight. Dispersion of optical power would soon destroy the meta-stable concentration of EMF power upon which the LENR reaction depends. This is where ultra-dense matter comes into the LENR picture. This state of matter produces the state of superconductivity in the particles that make up this special type of matter. LENR takes to this special highly supportive electromagnetic environment like bacteria take to a soup of supportive nutrients in a petri dish.

The LENR reaction can form in a non-superconductive situation, but it needs far more input energy pumping to maintain the density of sufficient polaritons that can sustain the associated development of an EMF event horizon. This weaken gathering of polariton density is where gammas and sundry nuclear reactive byproduct will manifest.