Is it at any specific pulsing frequency he gets Brown's gas or is it "only" depending on the voltage applied to the cell?
Another aspect is to make sure you are working with Brown's gas and not H2/O2 gas alone. This can be tested by igniting a bubble formed on a soap water solution or by running a torch on the output of the electrolyser and see what this does to concrete, tungsten, etc. If it can melt concrete or tungsten, you can be sure you got Brown's gas.
From what I heard from the friend mentioned, he pulses his electrolyser with about 1.8V per individual cell instead of 2V, so slightly less than normal. According to him, that's when you get Brown's gas and not much H2/O2 gas. Yet another claim which needs to be tested and confirmed, BUT gives you something to test and ponder about...
So the electrolyzer I built is a 59 (4 x 6 in) plate dry cell, running from 117 volts (about 128 volt DC bridge rectified) with NaOH. This cell would not run my 305cc engine at full output (approx 13 LpM), but when using it to drive a torch head, it will:
- vaporize 1/4" titanium rod
- burn a hole through ceramic plate
- set off every car alarm in the neighborhood when igniting a one gallon milk jug full of it.
So what is it producing Hydroxy or Brown's gas?
There's an article out in Dutch now about the guy I referred to. His name is Frank Collaris, but there are quite a lot of people involved within and around his company:http://www.wanttoknow.nl/nieuws/doorbraak-op-het-gebied-van-watergas/
His website is: http://evomotion.nl/
Google translation of the article:http://translate.google.nl/translate?sl=nl&tl=en&js=n&prev=_t&hl=en&ie=UTF-8&u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.wanttoknow.nl%2Fnieuws%2Fdoorbraak-op-het-gebied-van-watergas%2F
I hand edited some of the more interesting parts:
In our laboratory we have been able to develop an improved cell which not only uses less energy, but also produces a higher quality gas. You heard it right. There are differences in the quality of the gas. These differences are even very large. Thus, it is not only important to look at the amount of gas, but also to the quality and to what you want to do with it. So we have learned how to make the gas do what we want it to do. We can make the gas more or less explosive this way. It is also possible to optimize the flame temperature by smart controlling and informing [measuring, data acquisition I guess].
We know the cells which have been around for many years in the trade [industry] which have holes in the plates. These holes have disappeared in our new cell. The water is brought into the cell in a different way and the gas is quickly discharged. As a result, there is no short-circuit current in the cell anymore. The result is that the cell is less hot and consumes less [energy]. Herewith, the explosive force has also increased sharply. Where we needed 30 liters of gas per minute before to run a motor 100%, this now only consumes 20 liters. That's a nice difference. We have never tested this higher quality on saving systems, but only at 100%. In addition, these new cells can be put under pressure and no longer have bolts going through them. The result is a cell that remains completely closed and causes no problems with possibly leaking rubbers. Also, an endurance test shows that there is no wear on the plates.
The Cawa engine
This is a so-called CHP-installation. This stands for cogeneration or combined heat and power. There is a petrol engine which is lightly adjusted for water gas, which is powering a dynamo [generator]. The heat from the engine can optionally be used to heat a home or a business premises. The electricity can be supplied back to the network, or can be used as a stand-alone system. The only thing the Cawa engine needs for this is tap water! The first Cawa engine is almost ready. It is a fully computerized system with unique solutions. The Cawa engine is calculated on 8500 operating hours. Various capacities can be realized from 50 to 6000 kWh. The system generating 50 kW electrical power costs € 85.000, - and has a payback period of about 1.5 to 2 years. The first model has an electrical capacity of 50 kWh and a thermal capacity of 65kWh.
The Cawa engine is the breakthrough which has been worked on very hard within EvoMotion. The market will be turned quite upside down, since because of this abundance is created in a world dominated by scarcity. Not only do we do that with an adequate capacity, but the Cawa engine is also technically the most ingenious what can be offered in the CHP technology.
As is stated in the article, the first commercial system is not yet ready. Frank has done a lot of research on this stuff. He started with a small generator, which I have seen running on water gas two years ago in april 2012 at a free energy gathering in France, where we both attended and spent a couple of days together, although there was no closed loop or any demonstration of excess energy at the time.
In May 2012, they were to demonstrate their stuff, but quite a lot of things went wrong and the demonstration was, well, a disaster:http://kloptdatwel.nl/2012/05/28/skepsis-en-niburu-op-windesheim-over-watergas/
The original critics site appears to be down, but I have a mirror:http://www.tuks.nl/Mirror/skepsis_discussie_html/Skepsis%20en%20Niburu%20op%20Windesheim%20over%20watergas.html
Needless to say, Frank became a bit more careful with his communications with the outside world, as was also mentioned in the article above:
So, a lot of experience has been gathered in the course of time. Experience those who want to can draw from, because we believe in openness. We know that there are several manufacturers of watergascels which will run into the same problems. They will not communicate about this, however, because their starting position is to make a profit. This is of course everyone's right, but we have a difficulty with that when it comes at the expense of the customer. HHO is an alternative to fossil fuels and should be brought to the market with the utmost care, in order o avoid people not taking this alternative seriously because of unpleasant experiences. In our opinion, HHO deserves all the positive attention it can get. This has been a very important reason for us to stop the communication to the outside world for the time being until the moment that many questions are answered.
To come back to the question: What Frank and his team did was to make an existing (old) generator with a Mercedes engine completely computer controlled. Not only the ignition timing, but also the control of the electrolyser and water fog system. This enabled them to do a lot of experiments on-the-fly with a running system and also allowed them to tune the system to the application.
When we are talking about these kinds of "brute force" electrolysers, both the voltage and pulse frequency applied influence the kind of gas being produced. While we do not yet fully understand the exact physics involved, we do have enough evidence to support the hypothesis that HHO or Brown's gas is a phenomenon whereby water is transformed into a form consisting of crystalised sheets with a honeycomb structure, very similar to ice BUT without the H+ ions which bind the crystal sheets together as in ice. We also have reason to believe that the formation of gas bubbles somehow containing this particular shape of water involves the formation of a Pollack "EZ" zone, characterized by a negatively charged region forming the interface between the positive plate and the "bulk" water within the electrolyte.
The voltage across this "EZ" region appears to be a very important parameter controlling the thickness of this layer, because of the electric fields involved. It also appears that when the voltage across this interface is suddenly removed, we are left with an EZ layer which is unstable because the negatively charged crystal sheets repell one another. It appears that pulsed D.C. across this interface at the anode is the main mechanism for creating this "Brown's gas" which has a number of very strange properties, while acoustic resonance of the fluid column in the electrolyser adds additional instability to this EZ layer and thus appears to also influence the amount of Brown's gas being produced.
Besides this phenomenon, there is a considerable current being driven trough the electrolyte, which appears to be responsible for the creation of H2 / O2 gas along the normal electrolysis process.
So, you end up with a system that has a number of parameters which can be used to control the type of gas being produced:
1) Voltage across the plates
. Higher voltages than 2V appear to increase the amount of H2/O2 gas formed along normal electrolysis, while voltages around 1.8V per cell appear to result in mostly Brown's gas being formed.
2) Total current
trough the system. More net current trough the system appears to increase the amount of H2/O2 gas being formed along normal electrolysis.
3) Pulsed D.C. appears to enable the production of Brown's gas. The pulse width, on/off timing and frequency
appears to control the thicnkess and instability of the EZ layer and thus influences the amount of Brown's gas being produced.
4) The frequency
of the pulses also appears to connect to acoustic resonance of the fluid column in between the electrolyser plates and thus appears to influence the amount of Brown's gas being produced indirectly.
So, controlling and tuning all these parameters
make it possible to control the quality of the gas being produced by the electrolyser and adapt this to the application, which is also what Frank has done.
And these are only the parameters related to the gas production. Other parameters which also need to be controlled are:
1) ignition timing (and "waste spark" suppression when applicable)
2) amount and quality of "cold water fog" injected into the air stream.
There appears to be a difference between "fog" and "mist". I haven't looked at this in detail, but the size of the droplets being injected
appears to be yet another parameter which influences the result.
To cut a long story short: just about every parameter you can think of has to be made adjustable
and then one can tune the system to find the "hot spots" which give the desired results. For each of these parameters there appears to be an optimal setting. Get one or two of these too far from their optimum in your particular system
and you can forget about getting a working system.