pure gold. 1906
UNITED STATES ATENT onnron.
. ELIHU THOMSON, OF SWAMPSCOTT, MASSACHUSETTS, ASSIGNOR TO GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY, A CORPORATION OF NEW YORK.
VAPORIZER FOR INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINES. 7
Specification of Iietters latent.
Patented Mar. 26, 1912.
Application tiled J'u1y 14, 19116. Serial No. 326,171.
To all whom it may concern Be it known that I, ELIHU THOMSON, a
citizen of the United States, residing at Swampscott, county of Essex, State of Massachusetts, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Vaporizers for Internal-Combustion Engines, of which the incoming charge. Thus, the fuels used may have different boiling points. For instance, when alcohol is used the amount of heat necessary to vaporize the charge is much less than when oil or kerosene is used and the amount will vary with different grades of kerosene. Or, if the vapor be overheated on entering the engine, pre-i nition and pounding are aptto result. lso, a greater delivery of heat to the vaporizer may be required when starting the engine than is necessary after the whole engine is warmed up. Theamount of heating surface when the engine is working under full load and burning more fuel need not be so great as when under a light load requiring a less quantity of fuel. Again, in cold weather, the charge of air and fuel will usually be cooler than in warm weather. The heating surface must be accordingly varied to meet weather conditions.
The object of the invention is to provide means for so controlling the heat supplied to the charge by the Vaporizer that etiicient operation of the engine is secured under the circumstances enumerated.
In the drawings illustrating one embodiment of my invention, Figurel is a sectional elevation of so much of an engine as is necessary to understand my invention; Fig. 2 is a sectional plan view on line 22 of Fig. 1; and Fig. 3 is a similar view on line 33 of Fig. 1.
-1 represents the upper end of a cylinder of an internal combustion ,engine. The inlet valve 2 held to its seat by a suitable spring controls the admission of the fuel charge to the cylinder from the chamber 3.
The exhaust valve 4 controls the passage of the exhaust gases from the cylinder to the chamber:5 and the exhaust pipe 6. The upper end of the exhaust valve stem 7 engages one end ofa lover 8. A red 9 connects the other end of said lever with an actuating device of any suitable construction which controls the operation of the valve. On their way to exhaust pipe 6, the hot exhaust gases pass through a vaporizer 10 having a cylindrical body or casing with two heads 11 extending acrossthe same to two radial partitions 12 extending from the center of the vaporizer to its cylindrical wall. These partitions together with suitable openings in said heads form a sector-shaped passage 13 for the exhaust parallel to the axis'of the vaporizer. Other passages 14,.for the exhaust are formed by'a plurality of tubes mounted in the heads; The flow of the exhaust gases througltihe passages 13 and 14 is under control of a rotary valve or damper 15 having a sleeve 16 mounted upon n cylindrical member projecting from the upper head 11. The sleeve 16 is also supported by a hub on the inside of the cover 17 of the exhaust chamber The lever or handle 18 secured to theupper end of the sleeve 16 provides a means for turning the damper about the axis of the vaporizer to open and close the passage 13 and to open and close the passages 14. This movement of the damper may be manually controlled bythe attendant or it may be subject to the automatic control of some suitable device which is responsive to changes in temperature or pressure in some part of the system.
When starting, a passage 19 having an adjustable air inlet 20- admits air mixed with gasolene vapor, or vapor from any other suitable fluid which vaporizes at a comparatively low temperature, to. the chamber 3. The damper 15 is movedto the position shown in Fig. 2 to expose the maximum vaporizing heating surface. The vaper charge is ignited by a suitable device and the exhaust from the engine running under these conditions soon raises the temperature of the vaporizer to..the degree necessary to volatilize the regular fuel charge which requires a comparatively high temperature for volatilization. The charge entcring by the passage 19 will then be slmt off and a suitable charge containing the regular fuel admitted through pipe 21. This charge flows through the openings 22 in the body of the vaporizer, passes around the tubes through the interior of which the heated exhaust gases travel and enters the .7 low the normal.
chamber 3 by the openings 23. The fuel of the charge is vaporized during this passage through the vaporizer. The position of valve or damper 15 regulates the extent of the heating surface exposed to the flow of the exhaust gases and thereby affords a means for regulating the heat supplied to the incoming charge to maintain it at the temperature required for efliclent operation.
It is well known that if the charge becomes too hot the powerof the engine will fall be- On the other hand, the temperature must not fall below a point sufficiently high to volatilize the fuel in the charge. The tendency to pre-ignit-ion will indicate to the attendant that the temperature is too high. The attendant should run 'tubular portion are much larger than the surface 'of the passage 13, hence the effective heating is greater. The damper is of such dimensions ,that it may completely cover the passage 13 but when in this position, Fig. 2,. the tubular passages 14 are all open and the heating surface'exposed to the flow ofthe exhaust gases is a maximum. The minimum effect is produced when'the passage 13 is fully uncovered-because the gases flowing through said passage affect a relatively small heating surface and the maximum number of the passages. 14 are closed. The passage 13 forms a sort of bypass for the tubular portion of the heater.
As will be obvious, numerous effects between the maximum and the minimum may be secured by turning the damper or valve to cover a greater or less portion of the passage 13 and uncover a corresponding number of the passages 14.
In accordance with the provisions of the patent statutes,-I have described the principle of operation of my invention, together with the apparatus which I now consider to represent the best embodiment thereof; but
I desire to have it understood that the ap paratusshoWn is only illustrative, and that the invention may be carried out by 'eo uiva lent means.
What'I claimas new and desire to secure by Letters Patent of the United States, is,-
-1. An internal combustion engine, in combination with a vaporizer for the motive fluid having aplurality of passages of differentsizes through which the exhaust gases may flow, and a means for controlling the flow through said passages to regulate the temperature of the incoming charge of motive fluid.
2. In an engine, an exhaust chamber, a valve seat at one end of the chamber, an exhaust valve engaging said seat and having its stem extending centrally through the chamber, a heater or vaporizer surrounding the stem in the chamber having passages for the motive fluid and exhaust gases respectively, including a by-pass through which the exhaust gases may flow, and a means for controlling the flow through said by-pass to regulate the temperature of the incoming charge of motive fluid.
3. A vaporizer for the motive fluid of an engine having a body portion, perforated heads extending across the body portion. a series of .hollow members connecting the heads to form exhaust passages through the vaporizer from the perforations of one head to those of another, a cylindrical projection on. one head, a rotarydamper mounted on the projection to move over the surface of said head. to open and close the passages to control the flow of the exhaust therethrough, and means for operating said damper.
4. A vaporizer for the motive fluid of an engine having upper and lower heads, a series of tubes secured in the heads and extending from the outer surface of one head to the outer surface of the other, radial partitions extending between the heads to form with suitable openings in said heads, a sector-shaped passage parallel to .the tubular portion of said vaporizer, a sector-shaped damper of suflicient size to close said passage rotatably mounted to move over the surface of one of the heads to ppen and close the sector-shaped passage and to open and close the passages through the tubes, and means to operate said damper.
5. A vaporizer for the fuel charge of an internal combustion engine having a relativelv large hollow member and a series of smaller hollow members through the interior passages of which the exhaust gases'may flow. the body of said vaporizer having openings for the entrance and exit of the fuel chargewhich is vaporized by contact with the outer surfaces of the hollow members, and a means for opening and closing the passages through said hollow members which as it opens the larger passage closes a portion of the series of smaller passages and vice versa.
In witness whereof, I have hereuntoset my hand this eleventh day of July, 1906.