Chiral polarization is the KEY to the LENR reaction

Axil

Re: Chiral polarization is the KEY to the LENR reaction
« Reply #150,  »
More on Holmlid...

Holmlid: " H(0) is a quantum material and can have at least two slightly different forms—ultradense protium p(0) and ultradense deuterium D(0)—which are stable even inside many stars. ... Other important implications of the superfluid and superconductive phase H(0) in space await discovery."



What Holmlid is asserting will give professional science a nervous breakdown. He is saying that Ultra dense hydrogen is superconductive and superfluid even when it is enduring the pressures and temperatures in and around stars that are typical when nuclear reactions are occurring in and on the surfaces of stars.



What this posit is indicating is that there exists a mechanism where energy coming into the Ultra dense hydrogen is self reinforcing its superconductive property without limit in a positive feedback loop.
Re: Chiral polarization is the KEY to the LENR reaction
« Reply #151,  »
Here’s exchange between Joseph Fine and Andrea Rossi from the Journal of Nuclear Physics today.

It is following up on statements from Rossi where he says that their main focus is to obtain a wavelength in the E-Cat SK plasma of between 430 and 440 nm, which he has equated to temperatures of around 6900 °C, and having reached a peak peak temperature of 24000 K.

Joseph Fine
October 24, 2018 at 4:51 PM
Dear Andrea Rossi, Scientist:
A peak temperature of 24,000 K is very high. It should not be called ‘Cold’. (Except compared to the Solar Corona.)
Thermal regards,
Joseph Fine

Andrea Rossi
October 25, 2018 at 5:38 AM
Dr Joseph Fine:
It is still cold, compared to the millions of Kelvin you need for the nuclear fusion. ITER and others are talking of hundred millions K and this is why they will never succeed, because it is impossible confine reliably such temperatures with an unavoidably unstable magnetic field, on a so big surface. Consider that a contact at this T even for a fraction of second between the plasma and any material would instantly sublimate the material the reactor is built with, whatever you use.
Warm Regards,
A.R.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Could it be possible that the assumptions(black body radiation) about the SK/QX is not correct? Let's have some fun and assume that the energy producing reaction that these reactors are operating under is driven by an EVO that is a black hole as Ken Shoulders has assumed.

The plasma inside these reactors could support a Bose condensate that acts as a black hole. If  this assumption is accurate, then the energy that these reactors are tapping into comes from the vacuum. By black hole theory, this energy is Hawking radiation where photons of a particular frequency proportional to the mass of the back hole falls into the black hole and its anti particle partner exits the surface of  the black hole.

Since photons are its own antiparticle, whatever energy that is produced by Hawkings radiation is both projected to the far field and also falls into the black hole. That's right, the energy extracted from the vacuum  by the micro black hole is doubled because of the nature of the photon ( the photon is its own antiparticle). Half of the energy is radiated as heat and the other half of the vacuum energy feeds the black hole and makes it heaver.

http://www.scholarpedia.org/article/Hawking_radiation

THawking = 6.4×10^−8K/m⊙

Where m⊙ is the mass of the black hole

From equation 6 in the reference, the temperature of the Hawkings radiation is inversely proportional to the mass of the black hole. For a micro black hole, the mass is very small. that means that the temperature produced by that very light black hole is very high.

The vacuum energy fed into the black hole produces light and sub atomic particles such as muons.

You can see that the EVO is producing matter and light from nothing. I thinks this is where dark energy comes from.

Matt Watts

Re: Chiral polarization is the KEY to the LENR reaction
« Reply #152,  »
Quote from Axil on October 25th, 2018, 01:14 PM
You can see that the EVO is producing matter and light from nothing. I thinks this is where dark energy comes from.
I think dark energy is what we commonly term gravity, actually a hybrid field, a binding force for all matter and energy.  This force is what pressurizes the universe and without it, nothing but fundamental fields would exist.

Axil

Re: Chiral polarization is the KEY to the LENR reaction
« Reply #153,  »Last edited
Quote from Matt Watts on October 25th, 2018, 03:50 PM
I think dark energy is what we commonly term gravity, actually a hybrid field, a binding force for all matter and energy.  This force is what pressurizes the universe and without it, nothing but fundamental fields would exist.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cosmological_constant

Dark energy is a component of gravity. It is associated with the cosmological constant in the Einstein equation.

The cosmological constant has the same effect as an intrinsic energy density of the vacuum,

A positive vacuum energy density resulting from a cosmological constant implies a negative pressure, and vice versa. If the energy density is positive, the associated negative pressure will drive an accelerated expansion of the universe as per the cosmological constant, as observed.

When energy is extracted from the vacuum, an associated negative pressure of the vacuum will result to compensate to keep the energy of the vacuum constant.

https://www.abc.net.au/news/2018-10-26/the-holy-grail-of-modern-physics/10364458
Re: Chiral polarization is the KEY to the LENR reaction
« Reply #154,  »
Black Holes and Wormholes in spinor polariton condensates

https://arxiv.org/pdf/1104.3013
Quote
Conclusions Spinor polariton condensates, being rel-
atively easy to produce and manipulate, can be used
for the simulation of astrophysical objects, such as black
holes and wormholes. A 2D black hole with a closed event
horizon can be simulated. Effective magnetic fields, well
known as the cause of non-trivial spin dynamics of polari-
tons, can be used to organize the coupling between the
black holes and white holes in the two spin components.
A system of two wormholes in opposite directions allows
one to organize ”faster-than-sound” signal propagation.
These metastable polariton condensates have been observed in experiment to store 10^6 GeV or the mass of 1,000,000 protons. Could the energy be stored as Hawking radiation at the event horizon by the stoppage of time there as produced by relativity.

Also of note:
Quote
Such solitons have a lot of properties similar to those
of relativistic particles [25, 29], except that their mass
is negative (because they are actually holes rather than
particles):
Re: Chiral polarization is the KEY to the LENR reaction
« Reply #155,  »

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Kn5PMa5xRq4

What Are Virtual Particles? Dr. Paul Matt Sutter Helps Explain

The LENR black hole is an EMF issue and not a gravitational one so the details of that type of micro black hole is different from the big gravity based cosmic ones discussed in the video.

The big difference is that Hawking radiation makes the micro black hole bigger (gain more energy) over time until it explodes whereas the big cosmic black holes loss  mass.


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UzLDkMfR_60

Russ George et al has observed that increases in solar and/or cosmic activity change the level of gamma radiation that is produced by their LENR reactor(s). This might be due to the change in the excitation state of the vacuum around the earth that the associated activity around and in the Sun is producing in the vacuum.

A similar solar effect might be effecting the rate of radioactive decay that occurs when a Solar flair is ongoing. The activity of virtual particles are related to the radioactive isotope decay process.

See more info here:

Stanford Report, August 23, 2010

The strange case of solar flares and radioactive elements

https://news.stanford.edu/news/2010/august/sun-082310.html
Re: Chiral polarization is the KEY to the LENR reaction
« Reply #156,  »
Resonance can have many faces

http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/0957-4484/26/23/234002

SPECIAL

Experimental observation of anomalous thermal radiation from a three-dimensional metallic photonic crystal

Abstract

We report some striking results on thermal radiation properties of a resonantly coupled cavity photonic crystal (PhC) at elevated temperatures (T = 400–900 K). We experimentally found that at resonant wavelengths, λ = 1.1, 1.64, 2.85 μm, the PhC emission is spectrally selective, quasi-coherent, directional, and shows significant deviation from Planck's blackbody law at equilibrium. The presence of non-equilibrium effects, driven by strong thermal excitation and cavity resonance, may be the major cause for our experimental observation.

Sooner or later, science would stumble over some sort of LENR reaction.

thermal radiation coming off this photonic crystal (PhC) is up to 50 times stronger than blackbody radiation at certain frequencies. That radiation is coherent, directional, and focused, in other works, radiation produced by the LENR reaction.

This finding has the researchers puzzled.

I speculated that the coupled cavities in this crystal form a polariton Bose condensate that emits hawking radiation at specific thermal frequencies. There also may be some overunity here: more energy out than in...
Re: Chiral polarization is the KEY to the LENR reaction
« Reply #157,  »
Russ George is experimenting with LENR reactors that he built. Here is a post that is interesting.
Quote
QX in my case seems to mean 'Quick Exit', a new first on Friday, I chickened out with new experiments, rushing to turn off the stimulation when 5 of the magnificient seven, newly reconfigured after a weeks work, ran out of control and promptly exceeded more than 1000 C and showed no sign of slowing down, more than 300 C above their set points. The other three of the '8 rack' were running as controls and performing Ohmic heating calibrations. Be careful what you wish for. Now to figure out why.
The posit that some sort of proximity effect might be at play brings up the possibility of considering the onset of entanglement of macro systems. A common coherence mechanism between the 5 systems might have set up an entangled baseline where all the systems are acting as a single combined system. It will be fun to figure out what the common coherence mechanism could be. It might be a EMF field including a magnetic field as some has suggested, or it could be neutrinos, or wormholes, or it could be a coherent condition set up in the vacuum, or it could be a postulated 5th dimension.

If one of the 5 systems is moved far from the the other 4 and the coherence between the five is not disturbed, then suspect that these 5 systems are entangled. Entanglement is maintained regardless of position in space.

There has already been indications that something out in space is affecting the LENR reactors that Russ built.

IF these systems are entangled, then Russ has discovered a potential communication technology that is instantaneous regardless of the distance between sender and receiver. Such a discovery is far more important than excess heat production, IMHO.

Re: Chiral polarization is the KEY to the LENR reaction
« Reply #158,  »
IMHO. the key to LENR is the "so-called Grand Unified Theory"

When the cosmos first began, all forces and matter were the same. As the cosmos expanded, the forces and types of matter became unique and separate as the generalized state of entanglement between the various parts of the cosmos began to become unique.

The key to controlling all the forces and matter is to get back as much as possible to the Grand Unified state that existed when the cosmos began. That control is asserted through reestablishing entanglement. The strong force can be accessed through entangling it with EMF. Forming magnetism in the proper form can access and manipulate the strong force. The application of LENR is all about forming magnetism so that it is entangled with the strong force.

The strength of magnetism along does not access and connect with the strong force, It is the unique form that magnetism can assume that is the key to the LENR reaction. This special formatting of magnetism is how bacteria can cause nuclear transmutation processes to occur inside their protoplasum using magnetism with infinitesimally tiny strength levels.

Diadon

Re: Chiral polarization is the KEY to the LENR reaction
« Reply #159,  »
I wrote a very long explanation of my experimental findings and when I tried to post it disappeared :( Damn internet of things working against my energy/time lol! Anyways, if anybody can find information on Super Fluid Hydrogen that I don't have to pay $100 for I would love to read the litrature as its importance can't be underestimated.

Super Fluid Helium

Warm and Loving Regards,
Diadon

Axil

Re: Chiral polarization is the KEY to the LENR reaction
« Reply #160,  »

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hWT9H8TPJeQ

In the interview recorded in Episode 15 of the Cold Fusion Now! podcast with Dennis Cravens, he describes at about 1:50 in to after 2:30 how his reactor produces holes on the surface of his tube and if the rector is run hard at a high power density, the reactor falls apart.

If LENR developers would look closely at the areas in their reactors that are LENR active, they would see all the signs that point to the cause of the LENR reaction. These indicators are seen in many LENR reactors.

https://www.coldfusionnow.com/podcast/Ruby-Carat-Dennis-Cravens-Cold-Fusion-Now-015.mp3

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

http://www.daviddarling.info/images/Platonic_solids.jpg

As discussed in the video, we may be seeing plutonic solids condense in the LENR ash as a result of instantaneous consolidation  of the stored pseudo matter that is suspended in the active black hole as a quark plasma. When the black hole explodes, the quark plasma condenses and forms a solid crystal structure when the plasma solidifies and attracts electrons. 

This process of condensation of elements may not be associated with high temperature vaporization. The glass structures formed from copper oxide in the LION reactor ash could have been formed by a magnetically mediated flux tube based quark plasma consolidation process.

The sucking sound that LION heard when his reactor was cold and he connected the light to the reactor might have been caused by the inflow of oxygen into the heater tunnel when the copper glass was instantaneously forming on the surface of the reactor copper wrapping..

One clue to exclude any temperature involvement in the formation of plutonic solid crystals  is the survival of nano-particles and plastic substrates that formed the base upon which the various crystals formed,  Vaporization level temperatures of oxides would have destroyed these plastic and nano-particle substrates.

Re: Chiral polarization is the KEY to the LENR reaction
« Reply #161,  »

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5IAiMpmGx-M

The SAFIRE project has encountered the LENR reaction in their experimentation. The mechanism for LENR in SAFIRE is unique.

At 23:56, the experimental results show that light (UV) is slowed down to 1/60,000 of the speed of light. This points to the observation of Black hole behavior, or dark mode behavior that we see in other LENR experimental results.

Light energy is being accumulated inside the LENR Active Agent adding to its power potential.

At 45:07, a critical finding is revealed. The plasma becomes self feeding (aka self sustaining) at a very high power level. This self sustaining plasma behavior of the plasma is seen in the BrLP plasma. The plasma produces its own electrons and no electrons from the cathode is needed to keep the plasma energized.

Near the end of this video, SAFIRE team lists some of the LENR based results that they have seen recently. They preface their presentation with

We have seen in the LION experiment that the AA eats and gains energy in storage until a termination point is reached. When the AA terminates its active stage, it seems to release its stored transmutation products and possibly its energy store. The AA becomes dormant until the next activation cycle. The AA seems to live many lives and leave energy and transmutation products in a serial process.


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tHyZhWoz9Lk

In this SAFIRE video, there is a discussion about chlorine introduction into the gas mix and an immediate failure of the double layer and there is also indications of and associated immediate large amount of hydrogen being transmuted into many elements. Could this transmutation process also be accompanied by energy discharge? (SAFIRE has reported energy production of between 2 and 20 million watts of power in a burst.)

Could this release of energy at AA death have inspired Rossi's 7 second activation cycle for the QX reactor where at the end of the 7 seconds, stored energy is released and the cycle restarts again to produce the next batch of energy accumulation in the AA?
Re: Chiral polarization is the KEY to the LENR reaction
« Reply #162,  »
TheFutureIsNow
December 7, 2018 at 10:45 PM
Dear Andrea,
...
8) Have you attempted to utilize a laser inferometer setup to determine if any modification of the active vacuum of space near the QX/SK is taking place? If so, what were the results?

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White%E2%80%93Juday_warp-field_interferometer

Andrea Rossi
December 7, 2018 at 11:34 PM
TheFutureIsNow:
 ...
8- yes, but the results are confidential so far
Warm Regards,
A.R.

I had no idea that this experiment was possible, but Rossi ran it. This test might detect a disturbance in the vacuum is occurring, The posit that negative vacuum energy is being produced by the LENR reaction might show up in this test, also extracting energy from the vacuum might also be detected by this test.

Re: Chiral polarization is the KEY to the LENR reaction
« Reply #163,  »
If energy is being extracted from the vacuum, it will come in the form of negative energy photons. Here is how we will recognize when the production of vacuum energy is occurring.  The negative energy photon has been produced in the lab. It turns out to be a photon with negative frequency. That negative frequency makes this negative energy photon produce a pulse of light at an even bluer color than the base line positive energy partner (vacuum energy pair derived).

If vacuum energy extraction is occurring, than the production of blue light (UV or XUV) will occur. Both Rossi and Mills report this kind of light is being generated by their systems.

See light produced by ECCO reactor

https://steemit.com/science/@mfmp/brilliant-light-shower

See references

https://arstechnica.com/science/2012/08/the-dark-side-of-light-negative-frequency-photons/

https://phys.org/news/2007-01-dark-energy-vacuum.html

https://arxiv.org/abs/1201.2689

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Hawking radiation is the way systems extract energy from the vacuum. Black holes produce Hawking radiation,

How can a system produce Hawking radiation as follows:

Analog physics as follows

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Analogical_models

Analogical models are a method of representing a phenomenon of the world, often called the "target system" by another, more understandable or analysable system. They are also called dynamical analogies.

Two open systems have analog representations (see illustration) if they are black box isomorphic systems.

The important concept to understand is what a black box isomorphic systems are

See

https://www.gravitylaboratory.com/


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kOnoYQchHFw

Also see

https://link.springer.com/article/10.12942%2Flrr-2011-3

Analog gravity
See section 5
5.1 Hawking radiation

A dark mode polariton BEC is an analog black hole for light. It produces hawking radiation as photons. This is how LENR extracts energy from the vacuum. Negative energy photons enter the BEC and imbue dark mode polariton BEC with negative energy,

Re: Chiral polarization is the KEY to the LENR reaction
« Reply #164,  »Last edited
I suggest that a fundamental postulate of LENR might be that  any structure or process that produces hawking radiation will extract energy from the vacuum as a primary source of energy production. This structure or process contains an event horizon where photons from the vacuum are confined and separated between positive and negative energies.

An example of such a black hole like analog structure or process that can result in the LENR reaction in a plasma is a "Plasma mirror". Such a plasma mirror acts like a black EVO in a plasma.

There could be many  and varied LENR active structures or processes in which an analog black hole can form.

Plasma based systems like SAFIRE, the QX and SK reactors,  and the SunCell could be forming multiple plasma mirrors within their plasma in which energy from the vacuum could be extracted. The posit here is that LENR is a process that produces most of its energy output from  extracting heat photons from the vacuum. The plasma must fall into a state in which an analog event horizon forms.

Such plasma based systems unlike the black EVO could be free from strange radiation since the plasma mirror is not self sustaining. Any energy extracted from the vacuum is not nuclear or sub nuclear and as such is free from dangerous nuclear based radiation.

For example in SAFIRE, we know from experimental measurement that UV photons are being held in the plasma so that their speed of propagation is slowed by a factor that is 60,000 times less than the speed of light. This could be a consequence  of a process whereby the boundaries between the double layers are forming multiple plasma mirrors in which UV photons are being extracted from the vacuum via Hawking radiation.

Analogue black hole could be made from plasma mirror

https://physicsworld.com/a/analogue-black-hole-could-be-made-from-plasma-mirror/

https://physicsworld.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/PW-2017-01-30-Johnston-analogue-635x318.jpg



Re: Chiral polarization is the KEY to the LENR reaction
« Reply #165,  »Last edited
The issue of LENR safety boils down to this...can the LENR reaction be partitioned into separate characterizations and functionalities that include the following tentative list of reaction characterizations:

Radiant energy production,

....heat
....visible light
....UV light
....gamma ray
shock wave production,
particle production.
....electron,
....muon,
....strange radiation production.
........dipole
........monopole
transmutation,
....endothermic
....exothermic
matter disintegration,
radioactivity suppression
radioactive isotope elimination
radiation shielding effects,
matter teleportation,
anti-gravity,
magnetism
...vortex tube
........triangular foot print
........dipole
........monopole
....localized magnetic traps (LMT)
Soliton formation
....bose nova


For example, by looking at all the ways in which LENR effects appear and can be produced, what LENR consequences must go together and which are inseparable.

In microbe based LENR, transmutation occurs without any other characterization.

In the Papp engine reaction, shock waves occur, along with electron production and radioactivity suppression, but little or no heat is produced,

In the Hutchinson effect, anti gravity effects appear, matter disintegration occurs, strange radiation is produced, transmutation occurs, electrons are produced.

What LENR engineering must be able to manipulate and the correct theory of LENR must address is how each of these functionalities are produced and how they are matched together as they are currently observed in ALL the various LENR systems that have been discovered. Considering only one or just a few LENR systems is not sufficient to develop a satisfying and useful theory of LENR. By a process of reduction of the globule set of observed LENR behaviors, the theory of LENR shall reduce the cause(s) of the reaction to one or many basic fundamental causes. Any layering of functionality shall be defined between and among these fundamental causes in a hierarchical manor if multiple causes exist.
Re: Chiral polarization is the KEY to the LENR reaction
« Reply #166,  »
NASA’s Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna (ANITA) has detected an ultrahigh-energy particle with about 500 times the mass of a proton coming from the direction of the Antarctic ice.

https://dailygalaxy.com/2018/10/reboot-new-evidence-suggests-mystery-particles-detected-beaming-up-from-south-pole-do-not-fit-the-standard-model-of-physics/

The particle shower that the particle produces indicate that the particle had energies in excess of 0.5 exa-electron volts—70,000 times higher than the energy achieved with the most powerful particle accelerator.

There are a number of puzzles that are coming from the ice environment. Pluto is geologically active and Ultima Thule might still be. Its hard to believe that the heat that is keeping Pluto geologically active is still coming from freezing ice after 4.5 billion years of freezing. It might be best to understand the mysteries that nature shows us when they reveal themselves.
Re: Chiral polarization is the KEY to the LENR reaction
« Reply #167,  »Last edited
https://www.quantamagazine.org/the-octonion-math-that-could-underpin-physics-20180720/

octonion-math is Vortex based math.

I beleive that this math explains how the properties of quarks come from the operations of octonion-math, This following article shows how quarks are connected by a vortex like flux tube.

https://academicworks.cuny.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1075&context=lg_pubs
Quote
There is good phenomenological evidence that in a rotationally excited baryon a quark-diquark (q - D) structure is favored over a three-quark (qqq) structure[8];[9];[10]. Eguchi[11] had shown that it is energetically favorable for the three quarks in a baryon to form a linear structure with a quark on one end and bilocal structure qq at the other end. Similarly, Bars and Hanson[12], and independently Johnson and Thorn[13] had shown that the string-like hadrons may be pictured as vortices of color flux lines which terminate on concentration of color at the endpoints. A baryon with three valence quarks would be arranged as a linear chain of molecule where the largest angular momentum for a state of a given mass is expected when two quarks are at one end, and the third is at the other: At large spin, two of the quarks form a diquark at one end of the string, the remaining quark being at the other. Regge trajectories for mesons and baryons are closely parallel; both have a slope of about 0:9(GeV )^-2. If the quarks are light, the underlying quark-diquark symmetry leads to a Miyazawa symmetry between mesons and baryons. Thus we studied QCD with a weakly broken supergroup SU(6=21). Note that the fundamental theory is not supersymmetric. For quarks, the generators of the Poincar´e group and those of the color group SU(3)c commute. It is only the effective Hamiltonian which exhibits an approximate supersymmetry among the bound states q anti-q and qD.
Here is another reference to vortex flux tubes in particles. This looks exactly like what we saw in the LION experiments.

http://www.ptep-online.com/2016/PP-44-07.PDF

The geometrodynamics of the famous scientist John Archibald
Quote
Wheeler, who passed away in 2008, does not seem to
find favor among modern physicists.
According to J.Wheeler’s geometrodynamic concept
charged microparticles are considered therein as singular
points located in a non-unitary coherent two-dimensional surface
and connected to each other through “wormholes”, current
tubes, or current force lines of the input-output (sourcedrain)
kind in an additional dimension, thus forming a closed
contour. However, “wormholes” in space, if they are not considered
as purely mathematical constructions, in its physical
embodiment can only be vortex formations of some kind substance
that has the properties of an ideal fluid.
https://hiup.org/micro-black-holes-elementary-particles/



Based on John Archibald Wheeler's ideas that participles are black holes with wormholes. Not all particles might be black holes but some quasiparticles surly are since we have seen them in experiments, and these quasiparticles can interact with the quarks inside particles through vortex flux tube reconnection producing transmutation.

The "Geon" idea (https://jayryablon.files.wordpress.com/2008/03/wheeler-geometrodynamics.pdf
Black Holes as Elementary Particles) is old but from what we have seen in our experiments, it is most likely true

Black Holes as Elementary Particles
Christoph F. E. Holzhey
Frank Wilczek

https://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-th/9202014.pdf
Re: Chiral polarization is the KEY to the LENR reaction
« Reply #168,  »
I beleive that the LENR process is a complex reaction that is comprised of multiple sub-reaction-mechanisms one being transmutation. Transmutation can exist on its own such as occurs in microbes. There is no high energy components that accompany this process...if there were, then the microbes would not survive. Also there are energy generation sub-processes that do not involve transmutation. As Rossi developed his system, he changed the way he did things and the LENR reaction reflected these changes. It is possible that an initial LENR reaction formed CU as a transmutation product, but then a latter reaction did not. Rossi added lithium to his fuel mix as a latter improvement, This changed what the reaction did and what transmutation products were produced.

Right now Russ George is adjusting his fuel blend that he uses in his LENR  reactor and the LENR reactions that are produced also change in responce. For example, one fuel mix produces radiation and another just produces heat. It is not correct to think of the LENR reaction as simple and unchanging, the LENR reaction is very complicated and is a function of the way it is generated.

For example, in Rossi's latest system: the SK reactor, transmutation may not be occurring. That system could be extracting energy from the vacuum as one of these major energy producing LENR sub-processes.
Quote
RR
January 3, 2019 at 4:17 AM
Dr Andrea Rossi,
Is the temperature of the plasma in the Ecat uniform, or are there different temperatures?

Andrea Rossi
January 3, 2019 at 8:47 AM
RR:
There are different temperatures in different zones. When applying the Boltzmann formula we consider only the surface of the core, that in an Ecat SK is about 0.5 cm^2 and is where all the energy id produced.
Warm Regards,
A.R.
This bit of info tells us something important about the LENR reaction in the SK reactor. The energy production zone is located at a fixed location inside the plasma. This LENR active zone does not move around randomly throughout the plasma. We would expect that random movement of the energy production zone would imply a mobile LENR active agent such as a black EVO which is independent of the plasma...like a fish swimming in a lake. That fish could travel anywhere in that lake.

The LENR active zone inside the plasma is fixed in the "core" of the plasma. This means that the plasma itself is supporting the LENR reaction as an integral and indispensable component of the LENR process.

The SK reactor is a plasma based LENR reaction where the plasma supports the reaction without the action of another independent agent.

 

Re: Chiral polarization is the KEY to the LENR reaction
« Reply #169,  »Last edited
I have been asking professional scientists how energy can be extracted from the vacuum and the best explanation I have received so far comes from Dr. Paul M. Sutter’s blog: ask a spaceman.

My question:


Highlighted comment
Axil Axil
A photon/anti-photon pair created by pair creation through quantum fluctuations at the event horizon of a black hole produces Hawking radiation when the photon escapes to the far field and the anti-photon is absorbed into the black hole. How does that anti-photon decrease the energy content of the black hole to evaporate it since to the best of my understanding the anti-photon has positive energy…but negative frequency? Furthermore a photon with negative frequency and one with positive frequency are identical. Is the issue that allows the anti-photon to annihilate positive energy in any way related to the stoppage of time at the event horizon? Otherwise, the black hole just gets more energetic over time from this influx of anti-photons.

Dr  Sutter’s responce:

Paul M. Sutter replied: "Great question! I've discussed this before - just search my channel for hawking radiation!"

After my search, here it goes

http://www.pmsutter.com/shows/askaspaceman-archive/2016/9/20/aas-40-do-black-holes-die#comments-outer-wrapper

Essentially, because the black hole traps virtual photons in a time event that stops time at the instant that the event horizon is formed, these trapped photons escape based on their position that they were at relative to the event horizon when that horizon first formed.

The key concept about the Hawking radiation based energy productivity of an electromagnetic analog black hole is its lifetime. The shorter that this type of black hole lasts, the more vacuum energy that it can extract from the vacuum. The following insight comes from the explanation about the way Hawking radiation is produced and behaves that Dr. Sutter has explained in the reference above.

The polariton just exists for a few pico-seconds. When the polariton forms in the dark mode, it surrounds an aggregation of vacuum perturbations: (aka virtual particle) and stores them for release based on a general relativity time distorted horizon that delays the release of those “photons” until the polariton decays. When the polariton decays, the time distortion goes away and the photons derived from the vacuum become real.

The reason that the polariton can produce so much photon based vacuum energy is because it is so small and short lived. Two types of vacuum perturbed photons come from the vacuum, the positive energy photons that are low frequency heat guys, and negative energy ones that have a negative frequency whose energy level is in the ultraviolet energy range. The polariton condensate holds onto the negative gravity property of the negative photons that are being constantly created by the roiling soup of polaritons aggregation almost instantaneous birth and deaths within the Bose condensate were each member of the aggregation  lives and dies in pico-seconds, and the positive photons that are released to the far field as heat. The storage of negative energy inside the condensate results in its experimentally observed negative mass behavior.

The bigger the polaritons get… meaning the polaritons store more negative energy, the longer they live but because of the polariton’s increase size(energy content) and longer lifetimes, they produce and release less vacuum energy…they essentially go to sleep. These sleeping polaritons wake up when they are pumped and new short lived polariton start the vacuum energy extraction cycle again.

Dr Sutter laments that this Hacking radiation stuff is four levels of hard to understand. For the electromagnetic analog black hole, just double that level of hard. You can see that understanding LENR will take some considerable amount of time to become commonplace.
Re: Chiral polarization is the KEY to the LENR reaction
« Reply #170,  »
Here is the response I got back from Lawrence Crowell,

Lawrence Crowell of Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton (IAS) with expertise in: Cosmology and Elementary Particle Physics.

My question:

You seem to be up on Black hole stuff. Can you explain this point that is confusing me?

Hawking radiation produces a pair of particles created just outside the event horizon of a black hole. It is possible that the positive member of the pair (say, an electron) may escape - observed as thermal radiation emitting from the black hole - while the negative particle (say, a positron, with its negative energy and negative mass) may fall back into the black hole, and in this way the black hole would gradually lose mass. But a positron has positive energy(512KeV). Can you explain how a particle with negative mass converts itself into a particle that has positive energy? Does it involve the flow of time? Have you already covered this in your blog?

The answer:

@ Axil: Remember that this picture of an electron pair is a bit of a heuristic. However, we can address this matter from the perspective of quantum field theory and Dirac's old idea of the “Dirac sea.” To start Dirac proposed that the anti-electron sat in the bottom half of the momentum-energy light cone. The Lorentzian light cone with time arrow inside the cone and the basis vectors for spatial directions outside has its Fourier transformed version with energy direction inside the cones and momentum basis vectors out. The negative energy bottom half cone is completely filled, and if it is not then some positive energy will fall in and fill it emitting a photon. The positive top part of the cone has positive mass-energy electron states. The two halves of the cone have a gap of mc^2 for the mass of the electron. So to generate an anti-electron one must impart 2mc^2 or more energy into a state in the negative half of the cone to jump it into the positive energy cone across the mass gaps. This means the physical anti-electron has a positive mass. Along with this positron comes an electron as well. By pulling a positive charged negative energy state in the bottom light cone you have left a “hole” and this has a negative charge in this “sea.” That is canceled by generating a negative charged electron with positive mass and the hole is filled..

We now can use this to think of more modern quantum field theory. The electron and positron were pulled out of the vacuum by imparting sufficient energy in some interaction, such as a gamma ray scattering off a nucleus. These loops or virtual particles in the vacuum can be removed by a process called normal ordering. We expect these processes to have no contribution unless they are coupled to real particles. In that case these things are summed over for a range of energy or momentum and as such are considered “off shell.” So we have no particular trouble thinking of the particle that enters the black hole as negative and the real particle makes it out of asymptotic infinity. However, this picture becomes a bit problematic when we consider gravity. The vacuum may be removed for ordinary quantum fields, but with gravity it will still have some gravitational interaction.

Now consider the Penrose diagram for the Schwarzshild metric. The horizons for the X in the middle and we then think of there being a quantum loop, such as for the e-p pair at the center. Gravitation determines the path of a particle classically as following geodesic flows. However, if we think about the path integral of quantum mechanics only one path for a particle is on the geodesic; the other paths are really nongeodesic. The same holds for this loop. I wrote on Stack Exchange on how the Kerr-Newman black hole for a stationary accelerated frame near the black hole the local spacetime region in that frame is AdS_2×S^2, where AdS_2 is an anti-de Sitter spacetime in two dimensions.

https://physics.stackexchange.com/questions/262735/ads-black-holes/262744#262744

The AdS spacetime has negative curvature or a negative vacuum energy. That observer will only be able to detect part of that loop, as this observer never crosses the horizon. This deformation of the vacuum into a locally negative value is one way within spacetime that we can think of the black hole as absorbing negative mass-energy. That loop is also on a non-geodesic path and the result is that negative mass-energy crosses the horizon. Then true to the old idea of Dirac positive energy particles emerge from the black hole.

Re: Chiral polarization is the KEY to the LENR reaction
« Reply #171,  »
I have become aware of some new properties and capabilities that my favorite stuff can produce. First, a Polariton condensate can convert light into a liquid

https://futurism.com/scientists-demonstrate-liquid-light-at-room-temperature-for-the-first-time


Next, it can also be formed into a time crystal, a new form of matter.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Time_crystal

https://arxiv.org/abs/1810.00026
Quote
We analyse nonequilibrium phase transitions in microcavity polariton condensates trapped in optically induced annular potentials. We develop an analytic model for annular optical traps, which gives an intuitive interpretation for recent experimental observations on the polariton spatial mode switching with variation of the trap size. In the vicinity of polariton lasing threshold we then develop a nonlinear mean-field model accounting for interactions and gain saturation, and identify several bifurcation scenarios leading to formation of high angular momentum quantum vortices. For experimentally relevant parameters we predict the emergence of spatially and temporally ordered polariton condensates (time crystals), which can be witnessed by frequency combs in the polariton lasing spectrum or by direct time-resolved optical emission measurements. In contrast to previous realizations, our polaritonic time crystal is spontaneously formed from an incoherent excitonic bath and does not inherit its frequency from any periodic driving field.
What does "identify several bifurcation scenarios leading to formation of high angular momentum quantum vortices" mean:



The polariton condensate produces two counter-rotating spin vorticies that are the source of the north and south poles of the vortex flux tubes (wormholes) that were seen in the LION reactor ash analysis that MFMP did.

What does this mean for LENR? An EVO could be a self perpetuating liquid time crystal that continually and permanently vibrates without the need for energy and in so doing, breaks time symmetry and the conservation of energy. When time symmetry is broken, so is the conservation of energy.

Time translation symmetry

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Time_translation_symmetry

Time Crystals are Very Interesting - Ask a Spaceman!


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FGopZnPHPfs
Re: Chiral polarization is the KEY to the LENR reaction
« Reply #172,  »Last edited
In 1839 a young Frenchman, Alexandre Edmond Becquerel, experimented with electricity in his father’s lab. He was passionate about phenomena of magnetism, electricity and optics, which scientists had only started to understand. He noticed a strange occurrence: an electrolytic cell generated more energy when it was exposed to sunlight. He called it the photovoltaic effect.

Forty years had to pass for another two scientists, William Grylls Adams and Richard Evans Day, to discover the photovoltaic effect in a solid substance. Then, in 1905, Albert Einstein explained the fundamental physics of it, which ultimately led to the quantum revolution in physics. Yet even eight years later, great physicists such as Max Planck considered this explanation foolish. With an apparent lack of practical applications, all these breakthroughs had not been taken forward until a US company, Bell Labs, made the world’s first useful solar cell in the 1950s. The rest is history.

Science is a passion driven by curiosity. It is not a job, it is an obsession driven by the need to know.

Alfred Lothar Wegener was a German polar researcher, geophysicist and meteorologist.

During his lifetime he was primarily known for his achievements in meteorology and as a pioneer of polar research, but today he is most remembered as the originator of the theory of continental drift by hypothesizing in 1912 that the continents are slowly drifting around the Earth. His hypothesis was controversial and not widely accepted until the 1950s.

Ludwig Boltzmann faced massive ridicule for his work on thermodynamics, eventually committing suicide in 1906. His work was largely carried on and extended by Paul Ehrenfest, who faced similar ridicule, committing suicide in 1933. Their work laid the foundation for modern statistical mechanics.

In 1927, Georges Lemaître put together data about the redshift and distance measurements of galaxies to infer the expanding Universe, writing to Einstein about his findings. Einstein responded, "Your calculations are correct, but your physics are abominable." Yet Lemaître was correct, with his conclusions predating Hubble's identical ones by two years.

Fritz Zwicky, who first inferred the existence of dark matter in the 1930s, had his results dismissed based on the absurdity that such a significant fraction of the Universe could be hitherto undetected. The work of Vera Rubin and Kent Ford in the 1970s led to dark matter being seriously considered, but the work of Zwicky could have given us a 40 year head-start on the puzzle.


The really major advances in science are not recognized for decades after they have been made by those obsessed with knowing and discovery. These discoveries are just too hard to accept by the current paradigm of the day. As it has been, it remains so today. There are great advances in science that have been made but are currently being ridiculed. It just takes decades for these advances to pass the test of time and to come of age.

 
Re: Chiral polarization is the KEY to the LENR reaction
« Reply #173,  »Last edited
https://arxiv.org/abs/1712.07962

A Unifying Theory of Dark Energy and Dark Matter: Negative Masses and Matter Creation within a Modified ΛCDM Framework

There is a cosmological theory that the universe has an exactly balanced zero energy content and is balanced between positive energy/mass and negative/ energy/mass.

The universe formed out of nothing

https://www.astrosociety.org/publication/a-universe-from-nothing/

A Universe from Nothing

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zero-energy_universe

Zero-energy universe

There is a problem that exists in cosmology called the flatness problem

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flatness_problem

Flatness problem

In order for the universe to remain flat, the proportions of both positive matter.energy and negative matter and energy must be precisely equal. If this is not the case, then the existence of life in the universe is not possible.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Friedmann_equations

Friedmann equations

A flat euclidean universe can only exist in a zero energy universe. In order for the universe to stay flat and also to constantly expand, both positive energy/matter and negative energy/matter must be forming in a precisely balanced continuous process. This currently unrecognized process pumps out matter and energy as well as an equal amount of matching dark matter and dark energy in a continuous and on-going basis.

There exists as an ongoing process in every star and inside every planet a process that produces polarized energy from the vacuum. This reaction is the source of polarized (Positive/negative) matter and energy throughout the universe. Because this reaction maintains an exact balance in the creation of this polarized energy, the flatness of the universe is exactly maintained.

I am pleased to report that this reaction has been discovered and will be utilized in a commercial product that will be introduced on this upcoming January 31. A two hour live demo available on the internet will be held to mark the introduction of this commercial product.

Your questions during the discussion in direct streaming on http://www.ecatskdemo.com will be welcome.
Re: Chiral polarization is the KEY to the LENR reaction
« Reply #174,  »
 
New Paper by Andrea Rossi: ‘Possible Formation of Dense Exotic Electron Clusters in E-Cat SK’ – 60-day Test Produces 31680kWh of Heat.


The title is “E-Cat SK and long range particle interactions”, and is published at ResearchGate here:

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/330601653_E-Cat_SK_and_long_range_particle_interactions

I am reading the paper. This insight is important

In [13] is hypothesized
that a voltage pulse with a very short, critical rise time may favor the creation of coherent and
dense electron clusters: The conjecture is based on the possibility that, as a consequence of
Aharonov-Bohm effect, a rapid, collective and simultaneous variation of the Zitterbewegung
phase catalyzes the creation of coherent systems.

The paper recognizes that the formation of a Bose Einstein condensate is central to the formation of a charged cluster. The electron must be converted into a Boson to form that condensate.

What I don't yet see is the central role that entanglement with a boson plays in the process of converting the election into a boson.

Examples of those bosons are photons, phonon, and exitons.

What Rossi et al is assuming is that the vacuum particles will convert electrons into bosons at a small scale.

What really happens is that if electrons and a boson pair is localized in a confined volume for a long enough time, the boson and the electron will eventually equilibrate and therefore eventually be entangled to form and "election based boson". This condensate is called a EVO.

------------------------------------------

I think that the paper also said is that the spectrum emission lines produced by the plasma shows that a Holmlid based ultra dense hydrogen species (protium) is showing up in the plasma.
--------------------------------------------

When it gets way down deep into the nuclear and sub atomic particle processes that are being produced by the electron clusters, it is hard to tell what is happening.

MFMP is fortunate to have LION and ECCO reactor ash data that shows what processes are going on that Rossi cannot see in his plasma.