Sometimes radiation is produced by the LENR reaction. Why does this occur?
It is my belief that the LENR process that thermalizes nuclear level radiation is Bose Einstein Condensation (BEC). If a condition of BEC circumscribes the LENR reaction, the BEC will absorb that nuclear level radiation and downshift it into the thermal frequency range.
But for a BEC to be created, doesn’t the temperature need to be at super low temperatures near absolute zero?
There are two kinds of BEC. The BEC that requires super low temperatures involves atoms. The other kind of BEC is the polariton BEC.
See for background:https://warwick.ac.uk/fac/sci/physics/staff/academic/szymanska/research/polaritonbec/
This kind of BEC is a Condensate that forms in non-equilibrium driven-dissipative systems. The polariton needs to be pumped with energy because it loses energy from the cavity that contains it. If more energy feeds the polaritons than leaks out of the cavity in which the polariton forms, it can live and grow in power. The amount of nuclear energy that the polariton BEC can thermalize is a function of the power that is fed into the Polariton BEC and the amount of power that the Polariton BEC loses over a given time(AKA the Q factor).https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Q_factor
What affects the Q factor of a polariton substrate?
Polaritons are a form of light…actually a mixture of matter and light.
Polaritons cannot exist unless they form on a substrate of a metal. The Q factor is a character of the substrate; it is a function of how the substrate lets light escape the surface of the metal. A rough and pitted metal surface will produce a higher Q factor than a shiny smooth mirror like metal surface because a rough metal surface reflects light less well than a shining mirror like metal surface. In general, this Q factor of surfaces applies to any type of wave based EMF including electrons. Superconducting surfaces support the highest Q factor. Very little power loss occurs from the surface of a superconductor. A polariton condensate will retain its power for months when the polaritons are supported on the surface of a superconductor.
A collection of polaritons will form a Condensate when their density reaches a critical value based on the quantum gas theory. The formation of a polariton condensate has nothing to do with temperature. Its all a matter of polariton densityhttps://journals.aps.org/prl/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.016602
This theory of polariton condensation boils down to these LENR design rule associated with eliminating gamma radiation from the LENR reaction.
For a non-fueled reactor.
If you are using the surface of a metal to produce your polaritons, then roughen up that surface to make it dull and pitted. This is what Mizuno does to his metal surfaces. Mizumo processes his metal surfaces with an electric arc until that surface is well pitted.
You can increase the input power pumping of energy onto the surface of the metal so that the extra power increases the number of polaritons produced by the metal surface thereby causing a polariton condensate to form.
As an example, when Rossi had gamma radiation problems, he added a heater to his reactor to make sure he started up a HOT reactor. The thermal pumping to the micro particles was increased by the heater so that on startup, the Rossi E-Cat did not produce gamma from a cold reactor.
If metal particles are used instead of a metal surface (as per Piantelli), use a mix of very wide range of various particles sizes from micro to nano sizes.
For a fueled reactor.
A fueled reactor uses a hydride fuel that contains ultra-dense hydrogen(UDH) or ultra-dense lithium to support the LENR reaction. UDH is a superconductor and the hydride fuel that supports it will support the LNER reaction at any temperature and/or polariton pumping level due to the extremely high Q of the surface of the UDH superconductor.
The production of positrons in a LENR reactor.
Without a polariton BEC to thermalize gamma radiation, the LENR reaction will produce gamma as a result of positron production.
The LENR reaction is a weak force reaction. When the LENR reaction adds mass to the protons and neutrons, they will become excited and decay when the LENR reaction adds energy/mass to the quarks inside these nucleons.
As a decay process of these nucleons, both positive and negative muons are produced as a decay product. The positive muons come from the decay of anti-quarks in the nucleons.
The decay of the positive muon will produce positrons as a decay product.