There is an easy way to increase the distributed capacitance that I tried that doesn't require rewinding the spool. Adding any conductive liquid or powder in between the windings will create a near-equipotential volume between all the windings. The result is that the entire wire insulation area will contribute to the capacitance and the effective dielectric thickness can be as thin as two wire enamel insulation layers.I have done a lot of tests, with or without magnetic cores, and with or without conductive fillers. I used Analog Discovery 1 when recording.
Note: "Discovery2 DEMO" shows on the status bar because I did not have my Analog Discovery 1 connected to my computer when I took the screenshots
Attachments: Zip file "Impedance Tests - 1 lb Magnet Wire (Download WaveForms from Analog Devices Website).zip" is attached to this post.1 pound of copper 36 AWG (CMS Magnetics - magnet4sale.com)
In order to increase the penetration of water into the coil, I used a Dremel cutter wheel in order to cleanly remove the top flange of the spool, which allowed me to stretch the coil as well as access some wire in the inside layer. After I did this, I put the coil into a jar and filled it with water, the resulting resonant frequency was significantly lowered.About 3.39khz resonant frequency without H20 poured into the plastic container containing the coil
Capacitance and "Dissipation"
Capacitance and Phase
Notice the presence of the second peak past 10 Mhz, yet the phase angle remains negative
.About 426hz resonant frequency with H20 poured into the plastic container containing the coil
Capacitance and "Dissipation"
Capacitance and Phase
Notice the presence of the second peak past 10 Mhz, where the phase angle becomes positive
. This is likely due to the presence of series resonance between the capacitance and inductance of the capacitive currents that propagate perpendicularly to the wire (diverging/converging currents). This results in an impedance low due to series resonance
at this second peak. At lower frequencies, the tiny, tiny inductance of these capacitive currents bears very little reactance, and instead, we see that this capacitance is effectively parallel to our standard coil inductance which has a much larger value inductance and thus lower self-resonant frequency with an impedance high due to parallel resonance)
Impedance and "Dissipation"
- Note that using graphite powder will result in an even lower self-resonant frequency of the coil than with water, although it is quite messy.
- While the voltage capacity will be lowered, it will take less voltage to store a certain amount of energy in the dielectric. This may mean that a solid-state switch may become workable with a Newman machine without having to have many tens of thousands of volts in the inductive-spike.
- The dielectric-conductor interface will collect positive or negative charges that will be separated apart on inside vs. outside winding layers (Q_net_of_conductor_and_insulator = C * V * (1/insulator dielectric constant)).
- The alternations of dielectric-conductor interface charges result in an alternating radial current between the winding layers.
- These radial currents are convergent/divergent and may cause Nd2Fe14B with a relative magnetic permeability of 1.05 to alternate rapidly in strength.
- The electric polarization of the magnet which is due to (electric polarization density P) = (velocity v) x (magnetization M / c^2) or (electric dipole moment p) = (velocity v) x (magnetic dipole moment mu / c^2) will oscillate.
- The electric field due to the induced electric dipole moment p is close to being irrotational, while the electric field due to the time variation of magnetic dipole moment mu is strictly rotational. The former and latter are out of phase by approximately 90 degrees. Therefore, the voltages (line integral of E-field contribution) from each are out of phase by 90 degrees.
- The former is where we get work done by the fast-moving electrons in the atoms of the magnet (due to E-field "pancaking") applied to conduction+dielectric currents (provided that these currents are divergent/convergent in contrast to closed electric currents in conventional electric drives/generators). This is a form of capacitive coupling power transfer, at a distance.
- The latter is responsible for the mutual inductive reactive power (acting between the radial conduction+dielectric currents and a slightly magnetically-permeable magnet). Reason: The curl of the electric field is connected with changes in the magnetic field according to the Maxwell-Faraday equation.
- Assuming radiative, resistive, and hysteresis losses etc. are small enough, the two above effects (former and latter) when combined result in a driven oscillator where the source of energy is kinetic+potential energy of electron orbitals. Note: This is in connection with the higher frequency series resonance I discussed above.
- Supporting material:
- https://arxiv.org/pdf/1506.01524.pdf "Interaction between an electric charge and a magnetic dipole of any kind (permanent, para- or dia- magnetic or superconducting)" by G. Asti and R. Coïsson
Quote from G. Asti and R. Coïsson
In order to show that the physical interpretation may be different, let us consider the power exchanged by the internal generator and the field in the case of the rigid MD, which can be calculated as the time derivative of the energy of the equivalent electric dipole in the field E. [See equation 39.]
- https://www.vasantcorporation.com/what_can_swt_do.php "What Can Spin Wave Technology Do?" by George J. Bugh
Quote from George J. Bugh
It should be possible to absorb some of the energy present in standing waves among all matter and convert it to electricity to power electrical motors and appliances.
This can be accomplished through spin wave interactions with the electromagnetic standing waves among all matter.